153,622 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,981 images, 59,421 bibliographic items, 412,629 distributional records.

Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay & H.P.Mohler

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Hacrobia
Phylum Haptophyta
Class Coccolithophyceae
Subclass Prymnesiophycidae
Order Isochrysidales
Family Noelaerhabdaceae
Genus Emiliania

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Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay & H.P.Mohler
Schematic reconstructions. 17 Feb 2013. © Dag Klaveness.

Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay & H.P.Mohler
Wikipedia. Unknown. © Copyright free.

 

Publication details
Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay & H.P.Mohler in W.W.Hay, H.P.Mohler, P.H.Roth, R.R.Schmidt & J.E.Boudreaux 1967: 447, figs 1, 2; pls 10-12

Published in: Hay, W.W., Mohler, H.P., Roth, P.H., Schmidt, R.R. & Boudreaux, J.E. (1967). Calcareous nannoplankton zonation of the Cenozoic of the Gulf Coast and Caribbean-Antillean area, and transoceanic correlation. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 17: 428-480.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Emiliania.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Pontosphaera huxleyi Lohmann

Eponomy
Named for Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), British scientist.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Pontosphaera huxleyi Lohmann 1902
Hymenomonas huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner 1930
Coccolithus huxleyi (Lohmann) Kamptner 1943
Gephyrocapsa huxleyi (Lohmann) Reinhardt 1972

Taxonomic notes
See Bendif et al. (2014: 146) for discussion on relationship between Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. They support the proposal of Reinhard (1972) to transfer E. huxleyi into the genus Gephyrocapsa and note that Kamptner (1956) had indicated a high degree of homology of the structure of coccolith elements between the two species. Results presented in a subsequent publication by Bendif & Young (2014) support the above conclusion. - (21 Jan 2015) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
Bergen fjord, Norway; Iceland Basin (60ºN 20ºW); NE Atlantic (24ºN 20ºW); Gulf of Maine, U.S.A.; English Channel; Sargasso Sea; South Pacific, Australia; South Pacific, New Zealand; South Pacific, tropical; Indian Ocean, South Africa (Iglesias-Rodriguez et al., 2006). - (20 Sep 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Oceanic: Station Papa, Subarctic Pacific (Guo et al. 2012). - (25 May 2012) - Wendy Guiry

Southern Ocean (Wake et al. 2012). - (3 Aug 2012) - Wendy Guiry

English Channel, North Pacific, North Sea, Baltic Sea, North Atlantic, South Pacific, Mediterranean Sea (Bendif et al., 2014: fig. 2). - (1 Apr 2014) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Airs, R.L. & Llewellyn, C.A. (2006). Improved detection and characterization of fucoxanthin-type carotenoids: novel pigments in Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 391-399.

Bendif, E.M. & Young, J. (2014). On the ultrastructure of Gephyrocapsa oceanica (Haptophyta) life stages. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(4): 379-388.

Bendif, E.M., Probert, I., Carmichael, M., Romac, S., Hagino, K. & de Vargas, C. (2014). Genetic delineation between and within the widespread coccolithophore morpho-species Emiliana huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 50(1): 140-148.

Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.-J. (1990). Atlas du phytoplancton marin. Volume III: Chlorarachnophycées, Chlorophycées, Chrysophycées, Cryptophycées, Euglénophycées, Eustigmatophycées, Prasinophycées, Prymnesiophycées, Rhodophycées et Tribophycées Avec la collaboration de Chantal Billard et Alain Sournia. pp. [1]-261. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 15, quai Anatole France - 75700 Paris.

Cook, S.S., Jones, R.C., Vaillancourt, R.E. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2013). Genetic differentiation among Australian and Southern Ocean populations of the ubiquitous coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Phycologia 52(4): 368-374.

Cook, S.S., Whittock, L., Wright, S.W. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2011). Photosynthetic pigment and genetic differences between two Southern Ocean morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(3): 615-626.

Eltgroth, M.L., Watwood, R.L. & Wolfe, G.V. (2005). Production and cellular localization of neutral long-chain lipids in the haptophyte algae Isochrysis galbana and Emiliania huxleyi. Journal of Phycology 41: 1000-1009.

Evans, C., Malin, G., Mills, G.P. & Wilson, W.H. (2006). Viral infection of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) leads to elevated production of reactive oxygen species.. Journal of Phycology 42: 1040-1047.

Findlay, C.S., Young, J.R. & Scott, F.J. (2005). Haptophyta:Order Coccolithophorales. In: Antarctic marine protists. (Scott, F.J. & Marchant, H.J. Eds), pp. 276-294. Canberra & Hobart: Australian Biological Resources Study; Australian Antarctic Division.

Frada, M., Not, F., Probert, I. & de Vargas, C. (2006). CaCO3 optical detection with fluorescent in situ hybridization: a new method to identify and quantify calcifying microorganisms from the oceans. Journal of Phycology 42: 1162-1169.

Hagino, K., Bendif, E.M., Young, J.R., Kogame, K., Probert, I., Takano, Y., Horiguchi, T., de Vargas, C. & Okada, H. (2011). New evidence for morphological and genetic variation in the cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) from the cox1b-ATP4 genes. Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1164-1176.

Harris, G.N., Scanlan, D.J. & Geider, R.J. (2005). Acclimation of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) to photon flux density . Journal of Phycology 41: 851-862.

Heimdal, B.R. (1996). Modern coccolithophorids. In: Identifying marine phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 731-834. San Diego: Academic Press.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Schofield, O.M., Batley, J., Medlin, L.K. & Hayes, P.K. (2006). Intraspecific genetic diversity in the marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae): the use of microsatellite analysis in marine phytoplankton population studies. Journal of Phycology 42: 526-536.

Jordan, R.W., Cros, L. & Young, J.R. (2004). A revised classification scheme for living haptophytes. Micropaleontology 50(Suppl. 1): 55-79.

Kapustin, D.O. & Gerasimiuk, V.P. (2015 '2014'). Haptophyta. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 483-489. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Landry, D.M., Gaasterland, T. & Palenik, B.P. (2006). Molecular characterization of a phosphate-regulated cell-surface protein from the coccolithophorid, Emiliana huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 814-821.

Leblond, J.D. & Lisiter, A.D. (2009). Mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol composition of dinoflagellates. II. Lepidodinium chlorophorum, Karenia brevis, and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, three dinoflagellates with aberrant plastids. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 199-205, 3 figs, 1 table.

Lembi, C.A. & Waaland, J.R., Eds (1988). Algae and human affairs. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-590. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2005). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases organic carbon fixation by Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. Journal of Phycology 41: 1196-1203.

Leonardos, N. & Harris, G.N. (2006). Comparative effects of light on pigments of two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 1217-1224.

Nakayama, T., Yoshida, M., Noël, M.-H., Kawachi, M. & Inouye, I. (2005). Ultrastructure and phylogenetic position of Chrysoculter rhomhoideus gen. et sp. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae), a new flagellate haptophyte from Japanese coastal waters. Phycologia 44: 369-383.

Parke, M. & Dixon, P.S. (1976). Check-list of British marine algae - third revision. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56: 527-594.

Reinhardt, P. 1972 (1972). Coccolithen. Kalkiges Plankton seit Jahrmillionen. Die neue Brehm Bücheri 453: 1-99.

Rontani, J.-F., Prahl, F.G. & Volkman, J.K. (2006). Re-examination of the double bond positions in alkenones and derivatives: biosynthetic implications. Journal of Phycology 42: 800-813.

Schroeder, D.C., Biggi, G.F., Hall, M., Davy, J., Martinez, J.M., Richardson, A.J., Malin, G. & Wilson, W.H. (2005). A genetic marker to separate Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) morphotypes (Note). Journal of Phycology 41(4): 874-879.

Seoane, S., Eikrem, W. Arluzea, J. & Orive, E. (2009). Haptophytes of the Nervión River estuary, northern Spain. Botanica Marina 52: 47-59.

Xu, Y., Wahlund, T.M., Feng, L., Shaked, Y. & Morel, F.M.M. (2006). A novel alkaline phosphatase in the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and its regulation by phosphorous. Journal of Phycology 42: 835-844.

Young, J.R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Sprengel, C., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J.B. (2003). A guide to extant calcareous nannoplankton taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research Special Issue 1: 1-125.

Culture Centre for Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) cultures
Strain Number 920/2 Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W.Hay & H.P.Mohler
Go to CCAP Site

Created: 02 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 June 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8603 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Airs, R.L. & Llewellyn, C.A. (2006). Improved detection and characterization of fucoxanthin-type carotenoids: novel pigments in Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 391-399.
Balch, W.M., Kilpatrick, K., Holligan, P.M. & Cucci, T. (1993). Coccolith production and detachment by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 566 -575, 10 figs, 2 tables.
Bidle, K.D. & Kwityn, C.J. (2012). Assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1079-1089.
Borman, A.H., de Jong, E.W., Thierry, R., Westbrook, P. & Bosch, L. (1987). Coccolith-associated polysaccharides from cells of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Journal of Phycology 23: 118-123.
Buitenhuis, E.T., de Baar, H.J.W. & Veldhuis, M.J.W. (1999). Photosynthesis and calcification by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) as a function of inorganic carbon species. Journal of Phycology 35: 949-959, 7 figs.
Båtvik, H., Heimdal, B.R., Fagerbakke, K.M. & Green, J.C. (1997). Effects of unbalanced nutrient regime on coccolith morphology and size in Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 32: 155-165, 7 figs, 2 tables.
Colmenero-Hidalgo, E., Flores, J.-A. & Sierro, F.J. (2002). Biometry of Emiliania huxleyi and its biostratigraphic signifiance in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean and Western Mediterranean Sea in the last 20000 years. Marine Micropaleontology 46(3-4): 247-263.
Conte, M.H., Thompson, A., Eglinton, G. & Green, J.C. (1995). Lipid biomarker diversity in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and the related species Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Journal of Phycology 31: 272-282, 6 figs, 4 tables.
Cook, S.S., Jones, R.C., Vaillancourt, R.E. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2013). Genetic differentiation among Australian and Southern Ocean populations of the ubiquitous coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Phycologia 52(4): 368-374.
Cook, S.S., Whittock, L., Wright, S.W. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2011). Photosynthetic pigment and genetic differences between two Southern Ocean morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(3): 615-626.
Corstjens, P.L.A.M., van der Kooij, A., Linschooten, C. & Brouwers, G.-J. (1998). GPA, a calcium-binding protein in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 34: 622-630, 6 figs, 1 table.
Davis, S.A., Young, J.R. & Mann, S. (1995). Electron microscopy studies of shield elements of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths. Botanica Marina 38: 493-497, 4 figs.
Eltgroth, M.L., Watwood, R.L. & Wolfe, G.V. (2005). Production and cellular localization of neutral long-chain lipids in the haptophyte algae Isochrysis galbana and Emiliania huxleyi. Journal of Phycology 41: 1000-1009.
Evans, C., Malin, G., Mills, G.P. & Wilson, W.H. (2006). Viral infection of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) leads to elevated production of reactive oxygen species.. Journal of Phycology 42: 1040-1047.
Feng, Y., Warner, M.E., Zhang, Y., Sun, J., Fu, F.-X., Rose, J.M. & Hutchins, D.A. (2008). Interactive effects of increased pCO2, temperature and irradiance on the marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). European Journal of Botany 43(1): 87-98.
Garrido, J.L. & Zapata, M. (1998). Detection of new pigments from Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) by high-preformance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectometry, visible spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Journal of Phycology 34: 70-78, 4 figs, 3 tables.
Garrido, J.L., Otero, J., Maestro, M.A. & Zapata, M. (2000). The main nonpolar chlorophyll c from Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) is a chlorophyll c2-monogalactosyldiacylglyceride ester: a mass spectrometry study. Journal of Phycology 36: 497-505.
Garrido, J.L., Zapata, M. & Muiz, S. (1995). Spectral characterization of new chlorophyll c pigments isolated from Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Phycology 31: 761-768, 5 figs, 4 tables.
Green, J.C., Heimdal, B.R., Paasche, E. & Moate, R. (1998). Changes in calcification and the dimensions of coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) grown at reduced salinities. Phycologia 37: 121-131, 14 figs, 2 tables.
Hagino, K., Bendif, E.M., Young, J.R., Kogame, K., Probert, I., Takano, Y., Horiguchi, T., de Vargas, C. & Okada, H. (2011). New evidence for morphological and genetic variation in the cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) from the cox1b-ATP4 genes. Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1164-1176.
Harris, G.N., Scanlan, D.J. & Geider, R.J. (2005). Acclimation of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) to photon flux density . Journal of Phycology 41: 851-862.
Harris, G.N., Scanlan, D.J. & Geider, R.J. (2009). Responses of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) to step changes in photon flux density . European Journal of Phycology 44(1): 31-48.
Haxo, F.T. (1985). Photosynthetic action spectrum of the coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae): 19'hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin as antenna pigment. Journal of Phycology 21: 282-287, 6 figs, 1 table.
Holtz, L.-M., Thoms, S., Langer, G. & Wolf-Gladrow, D.A. (2013). Substrate supply for calcite precipitation in Emiliania huxleyi: assessment of different model approaches. Journal of Phycology 49(2): 417-426.
Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Schofield, O.M., Batley, J., Medlin, L.K. & Hayes, P.K. (2006). Intraspecific genetic diversity in the marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae): the use of microsatellite analysis in marine phytoplankton population studies. Journal of Phycology 42: 526-536.
Jeffrey, S.W. & Anderson, J.M. (2000). Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) holds promising insights for photosynthesis. Journal of Phycology 36: 449-452.
Kegel, J.U, Blaxter, M., Allen, M.J., Metfies, K., Wilson, W.H. & Valentin, K. (2010). Transcriptional host-virus interaction of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae) and EhV-86 deduced from combined analysis of expressed sequence tags and microarrays. European Journal of Phycology 45(1): 1-12.
Klaveness, D. (1976). Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay & Mohler. III. Mineral deposition and the origin of the matrix during coccolith formation. Protistologica 12: 217-224.
Landry, D.M., Kristiansen, S. & Palenik, B.P. (2009). Molecular characterization and antibody detection of a nitrogen-regulated cell-surface protein of the Coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 45(3): 650-659, 8 figs, 3 tables.
Lecourt, M., Muggli, D.L. & Harrison, P.J. (1996). Comparison of growth and sinking rates of non-coccolith- and coccolith-forming strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) grown under different irradiances and nitrogen sources. Journal of Phycology 32: 17-21, 3 figs.
Lefebvre, S.C., Harris, G., Webster, R., Leonardos, N., Geider, R.J., Raines, C.A., Read, B.A. & Garrido, J.L. (2010). Characterization and expresson analysis of the Lhcf gene family in Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) reveals differntial responses to light and CO2. Journal of Phycology 46(1): 123-134.
Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2005). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases organic carbon fixation by Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. Journal of Phycology 41: 1196-1203.
Leonardos, N. & Harris, G.N. (2006). Comparative effects of light on pigments of two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 1217-1224.
Leonardos, N., Read, B., Thake, B. & Young, J.R. (2009). No mechanistic dependence of photosynthesis on calcification in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1046-1051.
Linschooten, C., Vanbleijswijk, J.D.L., Vanemburg, P.R., Devrind, J.P.M., Kempers, E.S., Westbroek, P. & Devrinddejong, E.W. (1991). Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). Journal of Phycology 27: 82-86.
McCarthy, A., Rogers, S.P., Duffy, S.J. & Campbell,D.A. (2012). Elevated carbon dioxide differentially alters the photophysiology of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) and Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(3): 635-646.
Medlin, L.K., Barker, G.L.A., Campbell, L., Green, J.C., Hayes, P.K., Marie, D., Wrieden, S. & Vaulot, D. (1996). Genetic characterisation of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Marine Systems 9: 13-31.
Merrett, M.J., Dong, L.F. & Nimer, N.A. (1993). Nitrate availability and calcite production in Emiliania huxleyi Lohmann. European Journal of Phycology 28: 243-246, 3 figs, 1 table.
Nam, O., Shiraiwa, Y. & Jin, ES. (2018). Calcium-related genes associated with intracellular calcification of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) CCMP 371. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 33(2): 181-189.
Nielsen, M.V. (1995). Photosynthetic characteristics of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) exposed to elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon. Journal of Phycology 31: 715-719, 1 fig, 1 table.
Nielsen, M.V. (1997). Growth, dark respiration and photosynthetic parameters of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) acclimated to different day length-irradiance combinations. Journal of Phycology 33: 818-822, 3 tables.
Nimer, N.A., Merrett, M.J. & Brownlee, C. (1996). Inorganic carbon transport in relation to culture age and inorganic carbon concentration in a high-calcifying strain of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 32: 813-818, 4 figs.
Paasche, E. & Brubak, S. (1994). Enhanced calcification in the coccolithophoroid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae) under phosphorus limitation. Phycologia 33: 324-330, 4 figs, 3 tables.
Paasche, E. (1998). Roles of nitrogen and phosphorus in coccolith formation in Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 33: 33-42, 15 figs.
Paasche, E. (1999). Reduced coccolith calcite production under light-limited growth: a comparative study of three clones of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Phycologia 38: 508-516, 10 figs, 1 table.
Paasche, E. (2002). A review of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), with particular reference to growth, coccolith formation, and calcification-photosynthesis interactions (Phycological Reviews 20). Phycologia 40: 503-529.
Paasche, E., Brubak, S., Skattebøl, S., Young, J.R. & Green, J.C. (1996). Growth and calcification in the coccolithophroid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae) at low salinities. Phycologia 35: 394-403, 11 figs, 3 tables.
Pantorno, A., Holland, D.P., Stojkovic, S. & Beardall, J. (2013). Impacts of nitrogen limitation on the sinking rate of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). Phycologia 52(3): 288-294.
Ragni, M., Airs, R.L., Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2008). Photoinhibition of PSII in Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) under high light stress: the roles of photoacclimation, photoprotection, and photorepair. Journal of Phycology 44: 670-683.
Riegman, R., Stolte, W., Noordeloos, A.A.M. & Slezak, D. (2000). Nutrient uptake and alkaline phosphatase (EC 3:1:3:1) activity of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) during growth under N and P limitation in continuous cultures. Journal of Phycology 36: 87-96.
Schofield, O., Bidigare, R.R. & Prezelin, B.B. (1990). Spectral photosynthesis, quantum yield and blue-green light enhancement of productivity rates in the diatom Chaetoceros gracile and the prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 64(1-2): 175-186.
Schroeder, D.C., Biggi, G.F., Hall, M., Davy, J., Martinez, J.M., Richardson, A.J., Malin, G. & Wilson, W.H. (2005). A genetic marker to separate Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) morphotypes (Note). Journal of Phycology 41(4): 874-879.
Stojkovic, S., Beardall,J. & Matear, R. (2013). CO2-concentrating mechanisms in three southern hemisphere strains of Emiliania huxleyi. Journal of Phycology 49(4): 670-679.
Stolte, W., Kraay, G.W., Noordeloos, A.A.M. & Riegman, R. (2000). Genetic and physiological variation in pigment composition of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and the potential use of its pigment ratios as a quantitative physiological marker. Journal of Phycology 36: 529-539.
Suggett, D.J., le Floc'H, E., Harris, G.N. Leonardos, N. & Geider, R.J. (2007). Different strategies of photoacclimation by two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Phycology 43: 1209-1222.
van Bleijswijk, J., van der Wal, P., Kempers, R., Veldhuis, M., Young, J.R., Muyzer, G., de Vrind-de Jong, E. & Westbroek, P. (1991). Distribution of two types of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) in the northeast Atlantic region as determined by immunofluorescence and coccolith morphology. Journal of Phycology 27: 566-570, 5 figs, 1 table.
van Bleijswijk, J.D.L., Kempers, R.S., Veldhuis, M.J. & Westbroek, P. (1994). Cell and growth characteristics of types A and B of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) as determined by flow cytometry and chemical analyses. Journal of Phycology 30: 230-241, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Yin, X., Ziegler, A., Kelm, K., Hoffmann, R., Watermeyer, P., Alexa, P.. Villinger, C., Rupp, U., Schlüter, L., Reusch, T.B.H., Griesshaber, E., Walther, P. & Schmahl, W.W. (2018). Formation and mosaicity of coccolith segment calcite of the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi . Journal of Phycology 54(1): 85-104.
Young, J.R. & Westbroek, P. (1991). Genotypic variation in the coccolithophorid species Emiliania huxleyi. Marine Micropaleontology 18: 5-23.
Young, J.R., Didymus, J.M. & Mann, S. (1991). On the reported presence of vaterite and aragonite in coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi. Botanica Marina 34: 589-591, 2 tables.
Zhao, Y., Wang, Y. & Quigg, A. (2015). The 24 hour recovery kinetics from N starvation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Emiliania huxleyi. Journal of Phycology 51(4): 726-738.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 November 2018.

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