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Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Conjugatophyceae (Zygnematophyceae)
Order Desmidiales
Family Desmidiaceae
Genus Staurastrum


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Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs
Black Loch, South Ayrshire , Scotland.. 22 Apr 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs
Black Loch, South Ayrshire , Scotland.. 22 Apr 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).


Ulva lactuca var. macrogyna Reinsch

Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs Black Loch, South Ayrshire , Scotland.

Publication details
Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs 1848: 138, fig. XXIII [23]: fig. 8a-f

Published in: Ralfs, J. (1848). The British Desmidieae. pp. [i]-xxii, [i], [1]-226, pls I-XXXV. London: Reeve, Benham & Reeve.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Staurastrum.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), paradoxical.

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Staurastrum anatinum f. paradoxum A.J.Brook 1959

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Type information
Britain (several records); Germany (Meyen, Kützing); Falaise (Brébisson); West Point, N.Y. (Bailey) (Silva 1996-to date).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs)
Europe: Andorra (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Britain (Carter 1923, Whitton et al. 2003), France (Kouwets 1999, Anon. 2017), Georgia (Barinova et al. 2011), Germany (Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016, Paul, Stastny & Doege 2017), Ireland (Carter 1923, John, Williamson & Guiry 2011), Italy (Abdelahad et al. 2003), Latvia (Skuja 1928), Netherlands (Coesel 1997, Veen et al. 2015), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Serbia (Fuzinato et al. 2011 ), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Aboal 1991, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Turkey (Europe) (Sahín 2005, Aysel 2005).

North America: Northwest Territories (Sheath & Steinman 1982), Ontario (Graham et al. 2007), Québec (Irénée-Marie 1939, Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Brazil (De-Lamonica-Freire & Heckman 1996, Bicudo et al. 1999, Bicudo et al. 2007, Araújo et al. 2010, Freitas & Loverde-Oliveira 2013).

Africa: Egypt (Nassar & Khairy 2014, Nassar & Kham 2014), Ghana (Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2008), Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013).

Asia: Russia (Shakhmatov 2016), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Russia (Siberia) (Luknitskaya 2014), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2016, Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Pham et al. 2011).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Broady et al. 2012), Northern Territory (Day et al. 1995).

(as Staurastrum anatinum f. paradoxum A.J.Brook)
Europe: Austria (Lenzenweger 1997), Slovenia (Vrhovsek et al. 2006).

Key references
Coesel, P.F.M. & Meesters, J. (2013). European flora of the desmid genera Staurastrum and Staurodesmus. pp. [1]-357, 5 text-figs, 120 pls. Zeist: KNNV Publishing. [in On shelf with desmids]

Coesel, P.F.M. & Meesters, K.[J.] (2007). Desmids of the Lowlands Mesotaeniaceae and Desmidaceae of the European Lowlands. pp. [1]-351, 20 text-figs, 123 pls. Zeist: KNNV Publishing.

Gontcharov, A.A. & Melkonian, M. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of Staurastrum Meyen ex Ralfs and related genera (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) based on coding and noncoding rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 887-899.

Kouwets, F.A.C. (1999). A check-list of desmids (Chlorophyta, Zygnemaphyceae) of France. Patrimoines Natureles 41: 1-148.

Lind, E.M. & Pearsall, W.H. (1945). Plankton algae from north-western Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 50B: 311-320.

Meyen, F.J.F. (1829). Beobachtungen über einige niedere Algenformen. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae 14: 768-778, pl. XLIII [43].

Meyen, F.J.F. (1829). Beobachtungen über einige niedere Algenformen. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae 14: 768-778, pl. XLIII [43].

Petlovany, O.A. & Tsarenko, P.M. (2015 '2014'). Desmidiales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 61-448. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 23 June 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 22331 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Brook, A.J. (1958). Two desmid rubbish dumps, Staurastrum paradoxum and S. gracile. British Phycological Bulletin 1(6): 29-30.
Brook, A.J. (1959). Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen and S. gracile Ralfs in the British freshwater plankton, and a revision of the S. anatinum group of radiate desmids. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 63: 589-628.
Brook, A.J. (1959). De Brébisson's determination of Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen and S. gracilis Ralfs. Nova Hedwigia 1: 163-165.
Brook, A.J. (1959). Notes on the desmids of the genus Staurastrum. III. Staurastrum paradoxum in the Jenner Herbarium of the British Museum. Naturalist, Hull 1959: 81-83.
Brook, A.J. (1959). The published figures of Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen. Revue Algologique, Nouvelle Serie 4: 239-255.
Brook, A.J. (1960). The varieties of Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen - nomen dubium. Nova Hedwigia 1: 431-442.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 June 2018.

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