155,115 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,784 images, 59,948 bibliographic items, 433,667 distributional records.

Lingulodinium polyedra (F.Stein) J.D.Dodge

Publication details
Lingulodinium polyedra (F.Stein) J.D.Dodge 1989: 291

Published in: Dodge, J.D. (1989). Some revisions of the family Gonyaulacaceae (Dinophyceae) based on a scanning electron microscope study. Botanica Marina 32: 275-298, 42 figs, 2 tables.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Lingulodinium is Lingulodinium machaerophorum (Deflandre & Cookson) D.Wall.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein

Type information
Type locality: Germany: Kiel Harbor (Silva 1996-to date).

Origin of species name
Noun (Greek), Gr. poly, many; Gr. hedra, f. seat, chair, base, plane, side (Brown 1956).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Lingulodinium machaerophorum (Deflandre & Cookson) D.Wall 1967

Nomenclatural notes
The epithet "polyedra" is a noun in apposition and is non-declinable, so use of the epithet "polyedrum", supposedly to agree with the gender of the genus name, is incorrect. ICN Art 23.5 [Melbourne Code]: "The specific epithet, when adjectival in form and not used as a noun, agrees grammatically with the generic name; when it is a noun in apposition or a genitive noun, it retains its own gender and termination irrespective of the gender of the generic name. Epithets not conforming to this rule are to be corrected (see Art. 32.2)." - (6 Jan 2018) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 46) notes the reported presence of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison toxin, in water samples taken during a bloom of this species. Please consult original reference for futher details.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Balkis, N., Balci, M., Giannakourou, A., Venetsanopolou, A. & Mudie, P. (2016). Dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Gemlik (Marmara Sea, Turkey) and seasonal harmful algal blooms. Phycologia 55(2): 187-209.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Figueroa, R.I. & Bravo, I. (2005). Sexual reproduction and two different encystment strategies of Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 41: 370-379.

Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. Acta Botanica Croatica 64: 129-212.

Jeong, H.J., Kim, H.R., Kim, K.L., Kim, K.Y., Park, K.H., Kim, S.T., Yoo, Y.D., Song, J.Y., Kim, J.S., Seong, K.A., Yih, W.H., Pae, S.J., Lee, C.H., Huh, M.D. & Lee, S.H. (2002). NaOCl produced by electrolysis of natural seawater as a potential method to control marine red-tide dinoflagellates. Phycologia 41: 643-656.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Lewis, J., Taylor, J.D., Neale, K. & Leroy, S.A.G. (2018). Expanding known dinoflagellate distributions: investigations of slurry cultures from Caspian Sea. Botanica Marina 61(1): 21-31.

Liu, L. & Hastings, J.W. (2006). Novel and rapidly diverging intergenic sequences between tandem repeats of the luciferase genes in seven dinoflagellate species. Journal of Phycology 42: 96-103.

Lundholm, N., Ribeira, S., Andersen, T.J., Koch, T., Godhe, A., Ekelund, F. & Ellegaard, M. (2011). Buried alive - germination of up to a century-old marine protist resting stages. Phycologia 50(6): 629-640.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 30 August 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 4770 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=44594

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 April 2019.

SITE © 1996 - 2019 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio