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Aegagropila linnaei Kützing

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Cladophorales
Family Pithophoraceae
Genus Aegagropila

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Lough Arrow, Ireland; 3 - 4m. 19 Feb 2018. Ger O'Donohoe (ger@mooregroup.ie). © Ger O'Donohoe Moore Group.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Lough Arrow, Ireland; 3 - 4m. 19 Feb 2018. Ger O'Donohoe (ger@mooregroup.ie). © Ger O'Donohoe Moore Group.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Lough Arrow, Ireland; 3 - 4m. 19 Feb 2018. Ger O'Donohoe (ger@mooregroup.ie). © Ger O'Donohoe Moore Group.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Red-cyan anaglyph showing small lake-ball in 3D. Collected by Diane Dobson Loch Watton Caithness Scotland. 13 Sep 2016. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Small lake ball, collected by Diane Dobson Loch Watton Caithness Scotland. 13 Sep 2016. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Lake balls. Portion of the ball-like structure showing the branched filaments. Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.. 27 Sep 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Portion of the ball-like structure showing the branched filaments. Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.. 27 Sep 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Panorama merge of several images showing branching. Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.. 27 Sep 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Teased-out portion of ball; panorama merge of many images.Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.. 27 Sep 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing
Lake balls. Teased-out portion of ball; panorama merge of several images. Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.. 27 Sep 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

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21 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Laminaria flabellum Bory

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing Surface view of a ball showing individual filaments. Collected by David John from a brackish-water loch, Loch Brugain, on South Uist, Outer Hebrides.
© C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Aegagropila linnaei Kützing 1843: 272

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. Mit 80 farbig gedruckten Tafeln, gezeichnet und gravirt vom Verfasser. pp. [part 1]: [i]-xxxii, [1]-142, [part 2:] 143-458, 1, err.], pls 1-80. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Aegagropila.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Cladophora linnaei (Kützing) Kützing 1849
Cladophora aegagropila var. linnaei (Kützing) Rabenhorst 1868

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Cladophora aegagropila var. thermalis Wolle
Cladophora sauteri f. profunda (Brand) Heering
Conferva aegagropila Linnaeus 1753
Ceramium aegagropila (Linnaeus) De Candolle 1805
Conferva aegagropila var. adnata C.Agardh 1824
Conferva coactilis Sauter ex Nees 1824
Chloronitum aegagropila (Linnaeus) Gaillon 1833
Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Trevisan 1845
Cladophora sauteri (Nees) Trevisan 1845
Aegagropila sauteri Kützing 1845
Aegagropila froelichiana Kützing 1845
Cladophora brownii (Dillwyn) Harvey 1846
Conferva pusilla Rabenhorst 1846
Cladophora holsatica Kützing 1849
Cladophora martensii Meneghini ex Kützing 1849
Cladophora muscoides Meneghini ex Kützing 1849
Aegagropila holsatica (Kützing) Kützing 1854
Aegagropila martensii (Meneghini ex Kützing) Kützing 1854
Aegagropila muscoides (Meneghini ex Kützing) Kützing 1854
Aegagropila bulnheimii Rabenhorst 1859
Conferva sauteri f. suecica Areschoug 1862
Cladophora bulnheimii (Rabenhorst) Rabenhorst 1863
Cladophora aegagropila var. brownii (Dillwyn) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. sauteri (Kützing) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. holsatica (Kützing) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. martensii (Meneghini ex Kützing) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. muscoides (Meneghini ex Kützing) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. bulnheimii (Rabenhorst) Rabenhorst 1868
Cladophora aegagropila var. daldinii Cesati & De Notaris ex Bertoloni 1868
Aegagropila muscoides var. armeniaca Wittrock 1878
Cladophora profunda Brand 1895
Aegagropila canescens Kjellmann 1898
Cladophora armeniaca (Wittrock) Brand 1902
Cladophora profunda var. nordstedtiana Brand 1902
Cladophora sauteri var. borgeana Brand 1902
Aegagropila lagerheimii Brand 1906
Aegagropila sauteri f. profunda Brand 1906
Cladophora lagerheimii Brand 1906
Aegagropila armeniaca (Wittrock) Heering 1921
Aegagropila profunda (Brand) Heering 1921
Aegagropila sauteri var. borgeana (Brand) Heering 1921
Cladophora glomerata var. nana Wang 1935
Cladophora yuennanensis Skuja 1937
Cladophora shensiensis C.C.Jao 1948
Aegagropila sauteri var. minima Okada 1953
Aegagropila minima (Okada) Okada 1957
Aegagropila sauteri var. yamanakaensis Okada 1957
Cladophora minima f. crassa Sakai 1964
Cladophora sauteri f. kurilensis (Nagai) Sakai 1964
Cladophora minima (Okada) Sakai 1964
Cladophora koktschetavensis Sviridenko 1995

Taxonomic notes
Hanyuda et al. (2002) note that Aegagropila linnaei has usually been called Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Rabenhorst or Cladophora sauteri (Nees ex Kützing) Kützing and that based on morphology, it was formerly classified into section Aegagropila or into the subsection Aegagropila, together with several marine species of the genus Cladophora. This classification is not supported by their phylogenetic analyses in which two very distinct Cladophorales clades are recognized. They conclude that the correct name for Cladophora balls (lake balls or Marimo in Japanese) is A. linnaei. Results also indicate that adaptation from a marine to a freshwater habitat has happened at least twice independently in the Cladophorales. - (28 Nov 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Conservational notes
Cladophora balls, or 'Marimo' as the Japanese call them, were declared a Japanese Natural Treasure in 1921, and then in 1952 became a Special Japanese Natural Treasure. Lake Akan is the most commonly known lake containing the balls, but they can also be found in Lakes Shiranitoro, Toro, Kawaguchi and Sai, all in the Iloklaido district of Japan. Local mythology surrounding these balls tells the story of a young man and young woman who are said to have drowned in the lake, and their hearts turned into Cladophora balls. The survival of the balls in Japan has been under threat on more than one occasion. The use of Lake Akan to transport timber caused many populations to die. As the timber floated in the lake whilst waiting to be transported, it blocked the vital sunlight that the plants require. Between 1945 and 1954, water-powered electrical generators caused a drop in the lake's water level, leaving many plants exposed to the open air, and nearly eradicating the population.
Cladophora balls were first discovered in Lake Zeller, Austria in 1824 by Dr Anton E Sauter, a physician and botanist. They were named Cladophora aegagropila and they belong to the Cladophora sauteri group. Cladophora means 'branched plant', aegagropila means 'lake ball' and sauteri is derived from Dr Sauter's name. Lake balls were subsequently found to exist in the United Kingdom, Russia, Iceland, Sweden and some other countries.
Lake balls have a green velvet-like appearance and have been known to grow to about 30 cm in diameter. At one time it was thought that Cladophora was extremely slow growing, taking between 150 and 200 years to reach the size of a tennis ball. Recent studies however suggest that the slow growth rate in more recent time is due to poor water conditions, It has also been found that the growth rate can be improved by mixing sea water with the lake water. In common with most plants, this species obtains nourishment by absorbing sunlight using the process of photosynthesis. The plants must remain in positions that receive plenty of sunlight otherwise they wilt start to die. Fortunately the plants are able to move around by means of the undercurrents of the lake, which allows them to swap places with plants in the deeper areas of the lake. This process of rotation allows all the plants to photosynthesize and therefore ensures their survival. It has been reported that the plant has the ability to float or sink, in order to position itself depending on the brightness of the sunlight. Plants then to grow in large groups in the shallower parts of the lake, but they can grow so densely that other plant life can be totally obscured. Another benefit of being spherical is that when silt and other fine debris collects on the uppermost surface of the plant, gravity causes it to naturally rotate with the weight and the debris will fall off.
These lake balls are found in Lake Myvatn in northern Iceland and in Lough Arrow in Ireland, although there is far more information relating to the balls found in Lake Akan in Japan. - (18 Sep 2007) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Common names

(as Aegagropila linnaei Kützing)
Japanese: Marimo (Yoshii et al. 2004).

(as Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Trevisan)
Swedish: Getraggsalg (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Type information
Type locality: Sweden (Hoek 1963: 51). Type: L 938/303/280 (Hoek 1963: 51).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Boedecker, C., Leliaert, F., Timoshkin, O.A., Vishnyakov, V.S., Díaz-Martínez, S. & Zuccarello, G.C (2018). The endemic Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae) of ancient Lake Baikal represent a monophyletic group of very closely related but morphologically diverse species. Journal of Phycology 54(5): 616-629.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Hanyuda, T., Wakana, I., Arai, S., Miyaji, K., Watano, Y. & Ueda, K. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships within Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences with special reference to Aegagropila linnaei. Journal of Phycology 38: 564-571.

Hoek, C. van den (1963). Revision of the European species of Cladophora. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-248, 1 fig., 55 pls, 18 maps. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

John, D.M. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Cladophorales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 557-564. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kützing, F.T. (1845). Phycologia germanica, d. i. Deutschlands Algen in bündigen Beschreibungen. Nebst einer Anleitung zum Untersuchen und Bestimmen dieser Gewächse für Anfänger. pp. [i]-x, [1]-340 ['240']. Nordhausen: zu finden bei Wilh. Köhne.

Vishnyakov, V.S. (2013). Aegagropila Linnaei Kütz. In: The Red Data Book of Republic of Buryatia. Rare and Endangered Species of Animals, Plants and Fungi. 3rd Edition, Revised and Enlarged. (Anon. Eds), pp. 390-391. Ulan-Ude:: Buryat Scientific Center SB RAS Publisher. [in Russian]

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Created: 04 April 2003 by Elizabeth Moran

Verified by: 19 November 2018 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8291 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Boedeker, C. & Sviridenko, B.F. (2014). Cladophora koktschetavensis from Kazakhstan is a synonym of Aegagropila linnaei (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) and fills the gap in the disjunct distribution of a widespread genotype. Aquatic Botany 101: 64-68, 1 fig.
Boedeker, C., Eggert, A., Immers, A. & Smets, E. (2010). Global decline of and threats to Aegagropila linnaei, with special reference to the lake ball habit. BioScience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 60: 187-198.
Boedeker, C., Eggert, A., Immers, A. & Wakana, I. (2010). Biogeography of Aegagropila linnaei (Cladophorophyceae, Chlorophyta): a widespread freshwater alga with low effective dispersal potential shows a glacial imprint in its distribution. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1491-1503.
Hanyuda, T., Wakana, I., Arai, S., Miyaji, K., Watano, Y. & Ueda, K. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships within Cladophorales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequences with special reference to Aegagropila linnaei. Journal of Phycology 38: 564-571.
Soejima, A., Yamazaki, N., Nishino, T. & Wakana, I. (2009). Genetic variation and structure of the endangered freshwater benthic alga Marimo, Aegagropila linnaei (Ulvophyceae) in Japanese lakes. Aquatic Ecology 43(2): 359-370.
Togashi, T., Sasaki, H. & Yoshimura, J. (2014). A geometrical approach explains Lake Ball (Marimo) formations in the green alga, Aegagropila linnaei. Scientific Reports 03761: 1-5, 4 figs.
Vishnyakov, V.S. (2013). Aegagropila Linnaei Kütz. In: The Red Data Book of Republic of Buryatia. Rare and Endangered Species of Animals, Plants and Fungi. 3rd Edition, Revised and Enlarged. (Anon. Eds), pp. 390-391. Ulan-Ude:: Buryat Scientific Center SB RAS Publisher. [in Russian]
Yoshii, Y., Hanyuda, T., Wakana, I., Miyaji, K., Arai, S., Ueda, K. & Inouye, I. (2004). Carotenoid compositions of Cladophora balls (Aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the Cladophorlaes (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication. Journal of Phycology 40(6): 1170-1177, 3 figs, 3 tables.

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Cite this record as:
Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 March 2019.

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