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Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gracilariales
Family Gracilariaceae
Genus Gracilaria

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh of Corrubedo Natural Parck, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. 16 Dec 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © gnacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, with Nanozostera noltei, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. 16 Dec 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss
saltmarsh, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Chaetomorpha stuhlmannii Hieronymus

Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss saltmarsh of Corrubedo Natural Parck, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara

Publication details
Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss 1967: 101

Published in: Papenfuss, G.F. (1967). Notes on algal nomenclature - V. Various Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Phykos 5: 95-105.

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Gracilaria is Gracilaria compressa (C.Agardh) Greville.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla Ohmi

Type information
Type locality: Gomejima, Akkeshi Bay (Lake Akkeshi), Kushiro Prov., Japan (Terada & Yamamoto 2002: 216). Holotype: Ohmi 200; ix. 1955; HAK (Terada & Yamamoto 2002: 216). Notes: Holotype: Ohmi 200, spermatangial. Isotype: Ohmi 201, cystocarpic, currently housed in herbarium at Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla Ohmi 1956

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gracilaria asiatica Zhang & Xia 1985

Taxonomic notes
Terada & Yamamota (2002) report that Gracilaria confervoides and G. verrucosa of Japanese authors together with Gracilariopsis rhodotricha sensu Ohmi (non Dawson) actually represent this species.

Distributional notes
Thomsen et al. (2006: 139) note that the cylindrical form of Gracilaria that dominates Hog Island Bay, Virginia, is G. vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an alien macroalga from the West Pacific. This form was referred to previously as G. verrrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss (now a rejected name). Flat specimens from this area, formerly referred to as G. foliifera (Førsskal) Börgesen, are now referred to as G. tikvahiae McLachlan. Accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 167) with Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) imported for farming from the Pacific. Restricted currently (2015) to the N Adriatic Sea in the Mediterranean Sea; first found in 2008. It has now been reported to be introduced into a number of locations in NE Atlantic, including Britain and Ireland and Norway, and in Virginia, USA. - (22 Jun 2006) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla Ohmi)
Asia: Japan (Terada & Yamamoto 2002).

(as Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Bunker et al. 2017), Denmark (Nyberg et al. 2009, Nejrup et al. 2013, Thomsen et al. 2017), France (Rueness 2005, Rueness 2005, Anon. 2017), Germany (Thomsen et al. 2017), Ireland (Stiger-Pouvreau & Thouzeau 2015, Bunker et al. 2017), Italy (Sfriso et al. 2010, Sfriso et al. 2017), Netherlands (Rueness 2005, Gittenberger et al. 2010 ), Portugal (Rueness 2005, Abreu et al. 2011), Spain (Bárbara et al. 2005 , Bárbara et al. 2005, Rueness 2005, Bárbara et al. 2012), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Rueness 2005, Nyberg et al. 2009, Thomsen et al. 2017).

North America: British Columbia (Gulbransen et al. 2012), California (Miller 2012, Gulbransen et al. 2012), Connecticut (Kim et al. 2016), Massachusetts (Gulbransen et al. 2012), New Jersey (Gulbransen et al. 2012), New York (Gorman et al. 2017), North Carolina (Gulbransen et al. 2012), Rhode Island (Gulbransen et al. 2012), South Carolina (Gulbransen et al. 2012), Virginia (Thomsen et al. 2006 , Tyler & McGlathery 2006, Nyberg et al. 2009, Gulbransen et al. 2012).

Central America: Baja California (Pellizzari et al. 2013), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

Asia: China (Tseng & Xia 1999, Liu 2008, Liu 2008, Zeng 2009, Kim et al. 2010), Japan (Yamamoto 1985, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Terada & Yamamoto 2002, Kim et al. 2010, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Tseng & Xia 1999, Lee 2008, Kim et al. 2010 ), Russia (Skriptsova & Choi 2009 , Rueness 2010, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Tseng & Xia 1999, Nguyen et al. 2013).

(as Gracilaria asiatica Zhang & Xia)
Asia: China (Xia & Zhang 1999), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Rueness 2005), Korea (Rueness 2005).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Nguyen H. Dinh 1992, Tsutsui et al. 2005).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka.

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program.

Gittenberger, A., Rensing, M., Stegenga, H. & Hoeksema, B. (2010). Native and non-native species of hard substrata in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Nederlandse faunistische Mededelingen No. 33: 21-75.

Kim, M.S., Yang, M.Y. & Cho, G.Y. (2010). Applying DNA barcoding to Korean Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta). Cryptogamie Algologie 31(4): 387-401.

Kim, S.Y., Weinberger, F. & Boo, S.M. (2010). Genetic data hint at a common donor region for invasive Atlantic and Pacific populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1346-1349.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mathieson, A.C., Pederson, J.R., Neefus, C.D., Dawes, C.J. & Bray, T.L. (2008). Multiple assessments of introduced seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 730–741.. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65: 730-741, 5 figs.

Rueness, J. (2010). DNA barcoding of select freshwater and marine red algae (Rhodophyta). Cryptogamie, Algologie 31(4): 377-386.

Schories, D., Selig, U. & Schubert, H. (2009). Species and synonym list of the German marine macroalgae based on historical and recent records. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge 21: 7-135.

Skriptsova, A.V. & Choi, H.-G. (2009). Taxonomic revision of Gracilaria "verrucosa" from the Russian Far East based on morphological and molecular data. Botanica Marina 52(4): 331-340.

Stiger-Pouvreau, V. & Thouzeau, G. (2015). Marine species introduced on the French Channel-Atlantic coasts: A review of main biological invasions and impacts. Open Journal of Ecology 5: 227-257.

Terada, R. & Yamamoto, H. (2002). Review of Gracilaria vermiculophylla and other species in Japan and Asia. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species. Vol. VIII. (Abbott, I.A. & Mcdermid, K.J. Eds) Vol.8, pp. 215-224. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka.

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Tseng, C.K. & Xia, B.M. (1999). On the Gracilaria in the western Pacific and southeastern Asia region. Botanica Marina 42: 209-218.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Yamamoto, H. (1985). Gracilaria from Japan: Vegetative and reproductive keys and list of the species. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds) Vol.I, pp. 77-80. California Sea Grant College Program.

Yoshida, T. (1998). Marine algae of Japan. pp. [1-2], 1-25, 1-1222. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd.

Created: 22 March 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 15067 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abreu, M.H., Pereira, R., Sousa-Pint, I. & Yarish, C. (2011). Ecophysiological studies of the non-indigenous species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) and its abundance patterns in Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal. European Journal of Phycology 46(4): 453-464.
Abreu, M.H., Pereira, R., Yarish, C., Buschmann, A.H. & Sousa-Pinto, I. (2011). IMTA with Gracilaria vermiculophylla: Productivity and nutrient removal performance of the seaweed in a land based pilot scale system. Aquaculture 312: 77-87.
Arvizu-Higuera, D.L., Rodríguez-Montesinos, Y.E., Murillo-Álvarez, J.I., Muñoz-Ochoa, M. & Hernández-Carmona, G. (2009). Effect of alkali treatment time and extraction time on agar from Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 65-69, 2 figs, 1 table.
Bellorin, A.M., Oliveira, M.C & Oliveira, E.C. (2004). Gracilaria vermiculophylla: A western Pacific species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta) first recorded from the eastern Pacific. Phycological Research 52: 69-79.
Cacabelos, E., Engelen, A.H., Mejía, A. & Arenas, F. (2012). Comparison of the assemblage functioning of estuary systems dominated by the seagrass Nanozostera noltii versus the invasive drift seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla. J. Sea Research 72: 99-105.
Gorman, L., Kraemer, G.P., Yarish, C., Boo, S.M. & Kim, J.K. (2017). The effects of temperature on the growth rate and nitrogen content of invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla and native Gracilaria tikvahiae from Long Island Sound, USA. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(1): 57-66.
Gulbransen, D.J., McGlathery, K.J., Marklund, M., Norris, J.N. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2012). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) in Virginia coastal bays, USA: cox1 analysis reveals high genetic richness of an introduced macroalga. Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1278-1283.
Kim, S.Y., Weinberger, F. & Boo, S.M. (2010). Genetic data hint at a common donor region for invasive Atlantic and Pacific populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1346-1349.
Krueger-Hadfield, S.A., Magill, C.L., Bunker, F. St. P.D., Mieszkowska, N., Sotka, E.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2017). When invaders go unnoticed: the case of Gracilaria vermiculophylla in the British Isles. Cryptogamie Algologie 38(4): 379-400.
Nejrup, L.B. & Pedersen, M.F. (2012). The effect of temporal variability in salinity on the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. European Journal of Phycology 47(3): 254-263.
Nejrup, L.B., Staehr, P.A. & Thomsen, M.S (2013). Temperature- and light-dependent growth and metabolism of the invasive red algae Gracilaria vermiculophylla - a comparison with two native macroalgae. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 295-308.
Nyberg, C.D., Thomsen, M.S. & Wallentinus, I. (2009). Flora and fauna associated with the introduced red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. European Journal of Phycology 44(3): 395-403.
Phooprong, S., Ogawa, H. & Hayashizaki, K. (2009). Photosynthetic and respiratory responses of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss collected from Kumamoto, Shizuoka and Iwate, Japan. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 293-300, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Rueness, J. (2005). Life history and molecular sequences of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new introduction to European waters. Phycologia 44: 120-128.
Saunders, G.W. (2009). Routine DNA barcoding of Canadian Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) reveals the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla in British Columbia. Molecular Ecological Research 9(Suppl. 1): 140-150.
Sfriso, A., Maistro, S., Andreoli, C. & Moro, I. (2010). First record of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the Po Delta lagoons, Mediterranean Sea (Italy) (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(5): 1024-1027.
Terada, R. & Yamamoto, H. (2002). Review of Gracilaria vermiculophylla and other species in Japan and Asia. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species. Vol. VIII. (Abbott, I.A. & Mcdermid, K.J. Eds) Vol.8, pp. 215-224. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College.
Thomsen, M.S., Gurgel, C.F.D., Fredericq, S. & McGlathery, K.J. (2006). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) in Hog Island Bay, Virginia: a cryptic alien and invasive macroalga and taxonomic correction (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 139-141.
Thomsen, M.S., Staehr, P.A., Nyberg, C.D., Schwaerter, S., Krause-Jensen, D. & Silliman, B.R. (2017). Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) in northern Europe, with emphasis on Danish conditions, and what to expect in the future. Aquatic Invasions 2(2): 84-94, 5 figs.
Tyler, A.C. & McGlathery, K.J. (2006). Uptake and release of nitrogen by the macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 515-525.
Yabu, H. & Yamamoto, H. (1989). Chromosome number of Gracilaria chorda and G. vermiculophylla. Japanese Journal of Phycology 37: 236-238.
Yamamoto, H. & Sasaki, J. (1988). Interfertility between so-called Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss and G. vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss in Japan. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 39: 1-3.
Yokoya, N.S., Kakita, H., Obika, H. & Kitamura, T. (1999). Effects of environmental factors and plant growth regulators on growth of the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla from Shikoku Island, Japan. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 339-347.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 June 2018.

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