155,138 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,787 images, 59,962 bibliographic items, 434,255 distributional records.

Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen

Publication details
Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen 1985: 338, fig. 3, 4, 5 a-d

Published in: Balech, E. & Tangen, K. (1985). Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae): Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) comb. nov. Sarsia 70(4): 333-343, 5 figs, 1 table.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Goniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen

Type information
Type locality: Iceland (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 15). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 15).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Goniodoma ostenfeldii Paulsen 1904
Gonyaulax ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Paulsen 1949
Heteraulacus ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich III 1970
Gessnerium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Loeblich & Loeblich III 1979
Triadinium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) J.D.Dodge 1981
Protogonyaulax ostenfeldii (Paulsen) S.Fraga & F.J.Sánchez 1985

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax phoneus (Woloszynsky & Conrad) Loeblich & Loeblich
Glenodinium ostenfeldii Paulsen 1903
Pyrodinium phoneus Woloszynskia & Conrad 1939
Goniaulux tamarensis var. globosa Braarud 1945
Gonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa Braarud 1945
Gonyaulax dimorpha Biecheler 1952
Gonyaulax globosa (Braarud) Balech 1971
Gonyaulax trygvei Parke 1976
Gonyaulax peruviana E.Balech & B.R.E. de Mendiola 1977
Protogonyaulax globosa (Braarud) F.R.Taylor 1979
Protogonyaulax phoneus (Woloszynska & Conrad) F.J.R.Taylor 1979
Protogonyaulax peruviana (E.Balech & B.R.E.Mendiola) F.J.R.Taylor 1979
Protogonyaulax dimorpha (Biecheler) F.J.R. Taylor 1979
Alexandrium peruvianum (Balech & Mendiola) Balech & Tangen 1985

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 16) notes there is some doubt to the toxicity of this species. It is capable of producing paralytic shellfish poison toxins ; it is the least toxic of the Alexandrium species. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species

Produces spirolide and PSP toxins (Brown et al. 2011). - (20 Jan 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Brown, L., Bresnan, E., Graham, J., Lacaze, J.-P, Turrell, E. & Collins, C. (2010). Distribution, diversity and toxin composition of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. European Journal of Phycology 45(4): 375-393.

Fabro, E., Almandoz, G.O., Ferrario, M., John, U., Tillmann, U., Toebe, K., Krock, B. & Cembella, A. (2017). Morphological, molecular, and toxin analysis of field populations of Alexandrium genus from the Argentine Sea. Journal of Phycology 53(6): 1206-1222.

Gu, H. (2011). Morphology, phylogenetic position, and ecophysiology of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) from the Bohai Sea, China. J. Syst. Evol. 49: 609-16.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2007). S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates. Phycologia 46: 46-53.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Kremp, A., Tahvanainen, P., Litaker, W., Krock, B., Suikkanen, S., Leaw, C.P. & Tomas, C. (2014). Phylogenetic relationships. morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: implications for species boundaries and identities . Journal of Phycology 50(1): 81-100.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lewis, N.L., Xu, W., Jericho, S.K., Kreuzer, H.J., Jericho, M.H. & Cembella, A.D. (2006). Swimming speed of three species of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) as determined by digital in-line holography. Phycologia 45: 61-70.

Nagai, S., Baba, B., Miyazono, A., Tahvanainen, P., Kremp, A., Godhe, A., MacKenzie, L. & Anderson, D.M. (2010). Polymorphisms of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes found in the different geographic origins in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii and the species detection from a single cell by LAMP. DNA Polymorphism 18: 122-6.

Penna, A., Fraga, S., Masó, M., Giacobbe, M.G., Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Vila, M., Bertozzini, E., Adreoni, F., Lugliè, A. & Vernesi, C. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178, 25 figs, 3 tables.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 30 August 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3008 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Balech, E. & Tangen, K. (1985). Morphology and taxonomy of toxic species in the tamarensis group (Dinophyceae): Alexandrium excavatum (Braarud) comb. nov. and Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) comb. nov. Sarsia 70(4): 333-343, 5 figs, 1 table.
Cembella, A.D., Lewis, N.I. & Quilliam, M.A. (2000). The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) as the causative organism of spirolide shellfish toxins. Phycologia 39: 67-74.
Gu, H. (2011). Morphology, phylogenetic position, and ecophysiology of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) from the Bohai Sea, China. J. Syst. Evol. 49: 609-16.
Hansen, P.J., Cembella, A.D. & Moestrup, Ø. (1992). The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii : paralytic shellfish toxin concentration, composition, and toxicity to a tintinnid ciliate. Journal of Phycology 28(5): 597-603.
Jensen, M.Ø. & Moestrup, Ø. (1997). Autecology of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii: life history and growth at different temperatures and salinities. European Journal of Phycology 32: 9-18, 28 figs, 2 tables.
John, U., Cembella, A., Hummert, C., Elbrachter, M., Groben, R. & Medlin, L. (2003). Discrimination of the toxigenic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. ostenfeldii in co-occurring natural populations from Scottish coastal waters. European Journal of Phycology 38(1): 25-40.
Kremp, A., Tahvanainen, P., Litaker, W., Krock, B., Suikkanen, S., Leaw, C.P. & Tomas, C. (2014). Phylogenetic relationships. morphological variation, and toxin patterns in the Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) complex: implications for species boundaries and identities . Journal of Phycology 50(1): 81-100.
Mackenzie, L., White, D., Oshima, Y. & Kapa, J. (1996). The resting cyst and toxicity of Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) in New Zealand. Phycologia 35: 148-155, 23 figs, 1 table.
Maclean, C., Cembella, A.D. & Quilliam, M.A. (2003). Effects of light, salinity and inorganic Nitrogen on cell growth and spirolide production in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech et Tangen. Botanica Marina 46: 466-476.
Nagai, S., Baba, B., Miyazono, A., Tahvanainen, P., Kremp, A., Godhe, A., MacKenzie, L. & Anderson, D.M. (2010). Polymorphisms of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes found in the different geographic origins in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii and the species detection from a single cell by LAMP. DNA Polymorphism 18: 122-6.
Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., Van Sant, S.B., Tester, P.A., Sullivan, K., Eckert, G., Cammarata, C., Reece, K., Scott, G., Place, A., Holderied, K., Hondolero, D. & Litaker, W. (2017). qPCR assays for Allexandrium fundyense and A. ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) identified from Alaskan waters and a review of species-specific Alexandrium molecular assays. Phycologia 56(3): 303-320.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 April 2019.

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