Botryocladia (J.Agardh) Pfeiffer, 1873, nom. cons.

Holotype species: Gastroclonium uvarium (J.A.Murray) K├╝tzing

Currently accepted name for the type species: Botryocladia botryoides (Wulfen) Feldmann

Original publication: Pfeiffer, L. (1873). Nomenclator botanicus. Nominum ad finem anni 1858 publici juris factorum, classes, ordines, tribus, familias, divisiones, genera, subgenera vel sectiones designantium enumeratio alphabetica. Adjectis auctoribus, temporibus, locis systematicis apud varios, notis literariis atque etymologicis et synonymis Vol. I. Pars prior. pp. [i-vi], [1]-808. Cassellis [Cassel]: Sumptibus Theodori Fischeri [Theodor Fischer].

Type designated in: Kylin, H. (1931). Die Florideenordung Rhodymeniales. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 27(11): 1-48, 8 figs, 20 pls.

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Description: Thallus with a discoid or rhizomatous holdfast and erect branched or unbranched fronds bearing inflated, spherical, ovoid, pyriform or saccate, branched or unbranched vesicles formed sympodially and borne radially or, occasionally, in distichous rows. Construction multiaxial, cortex of 2-3 (-6) layers of small cells, forming a continuous layer over the medullary cells, medulla consisting of cavities filled with a weak mucilage, lined with oblong, rounded cells bearing secretory cells singly or in groups in a sessile position on the inner faces of the medullary cells. Filamentous medulla absent. Gametangial plants dioecious; spermatangial sori superficial, scattered, spermatangia cut off terminally from elongated initials modified from cortical cells. Cystocarps ostiolate, scattered, never coronate, protruding outwards and inwards into the medullary cavity, most cells forming carposporangia in 2-3 lobes of different ages, streched cells sometimes apparent in the area of the pericarp. Tetrasporangia formed in an intercalary position from cortical filaments, scattered, not in nemathecia. Spores regularly or irregularly cruciately arranged. Asexual reproduction is likely to be common in all the rhizomatous species. I.K. Lee and West (in West and Hommersand (1982): 172) report completing the 'Polysiphonia-type' life history of B. pseudodichotoma but give no details. Several other species have been grown in culture (Norris 1989; Guiry and Millar unpubl. obs.), but none has reproduced. Botryocladia is a large and distinctive genus characterised mainly on the basis that vesicles are borne on solid stalks of varying dimensions, as opposed to being completely vesicular or saccate, as in species of Chrysymenia (q.v.). According to Feldmann and Bodard (1965), Botryocladia species can be segregated into two major groups: those with short stalks and relatively few vesicles, and those with long stalks and many vesicles. Within these two groups, species discrimination is mainly on the basis of the shape, position and size of the vesicles, the number and position of the secretory cells. Norris (1989) considered that the shape of the medullary cells in the stalks was of taxonomic value, but this character remains to be determined for most species. The development of reproductive organs is poorly known for most species of the genus, and reproductive characters are rarely used in species separation.

Information contributed by: M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 2021-08-26 by M.D. Guiry.

Taxonomic status: This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as feminine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Comments: Young (1978) describes the ultrastructural evidence for a secretory function for the 'gland cells' of B. pseudodichotoma. Tripodi and others (1986) give an account of the fine structure of the genophore and the membranous bodies of the chloroplasts of B. botryoides. Taylor & Abbott (1973) described spine-like projections on the surface of B. spinulifera W.R. Taylor et Abbott from the West Indies which are not cellular but are extensions of the cell wall. Such spinous growths are unknown in any other species referred to the Rhodymeniaceae. Augier (1971 and included references) has described the occurrence of several plant hormones in B. uvaria (as B. botryoides) including indolyl-3-acetic acid and tryptophan. Ballantine (1989) gives details of reproduction in two species of the genus from the Caribbean. Species of Botryocladia are found in lower-shore tidal pools, occasionally on floating structures such as marinas (e.g., Monterey, California), and, most commonly, in the subtidal to depths of about 55 m (Abbott and Hollenberg 1976). In general, the genus has a tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate distribution. The genus Irvinea (q.v.) has recently been segregated from Botryocladia (Guiry in Saunders and others 1999).

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 26 August 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 08 December 2022

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