162,405 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,760 images, 63,996 bibliographic items, 474,969 distributional records.

Halosaccion Kützing, 1843

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Nemaliophycidae
Order Palmariales
Family Palmariaceae

Lectotype species: Halosaccion hydrophorum (Postels & Ruprecht) Kützing

Currently accepted name for the type species: Halosaccion glandiforme (S.G.Gmelin) Ruprecht

Original publication:Kützing, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. Mit 80 farbig gedruckten Tafeln, gezeichnet und gravirt vom Verfasser. pp. [part 1]: [i]-xxxii, [1]-142, [part 2:] 143-458, 1, err.], pls 1-80. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Type designated in Schmitz, F. (1889). Systematische Übersicht der bisher bekannten Gattungen der Florideen. Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung 72: 435-456, pl. XXI.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Saunders, G.W., Jackson, C. & Salomaki, E.D. (2017 '2018'). Phylogenetic analyses of transcriptome data resolve familial assignments for genera of the red-algal Acrochaetiales-Palmariales complex (Nemaliophycidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 119: 151-159, 2 fig., 3 tables.

Nomenclatural notes
Selivanova (2016: 12) proposes "H. glandiforme (Gmelin) Ruprecht, species lectotypica nova proposita."; Schmitz (1889: 455) designated H. hydrophorum as the lectotype. According to Art 9.19 [Melbourne Code] "The author who first designates (Art. 7.9 and 7.10) a lectotype or a neotype in conformity with Art. 9.11 must be followed,...". In any event, Selivanova treats H. hydrophorum as a later synonym of H. glandiforme. - (8 Jul 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Description: Thallus with erect tubular or saccate fronds arising singly or in small groups from a basal disc, becoming cartilaginous with age, unbranched or irregularly lobed, occasionally with irregularly arranged proliferations; construction multiaxial, cortex of 2-5 layers of small pigmented cells increasing gradually in size inwards and merging imperceptibly with medullary cells, medulla compact with 3-10 layers of isodiametric, mulinucleate cells the lumina of which become increasingly stellate inwards. Gametangial plants dioecious; spermatangia formed in large, irregular, tortuous sori over most of the surface of erect plants similar in morphology to the tetrasporangial plants; carpogonia occurring as single cells on young plantlets only, older carpogonia frequently developing multiple trichogynes; tetrasporangial plant developing directly from the fertilized carpogonium and overgrowing the carpogonial plant, carposporophyte absent. Tetrasporangia large, in extensive, irregular, tortuous sori generally covering much of the surface of the young frond when mature, formed in a terminal position from cortical cells, interspersed with modified, pigmented, branched or unbranched, sterile filaments, regenerating repeatedly from a basal generative stalk cell. Spores regularly cruciately or decussately arranged.

Information contributed by: M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 16 Apr 2018 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: The neolectotypification of the genus with H. firmun (Ruprecht) Kützing proposed by Guiry (1982) is not justified. This species occurs in Japan and Pacific Russia; H. hydrophorum occurs in Pacific Russia. H. americanum I.K. Lee (formerly known as H. glandiforme (S.G. Gmelin) Ruprecht) in Pacific North America) grows from the Aleutian Islands south to Point Conception, California, U.S.A. H. glandiforme sensu stricto is only found in Pacific Russia, particularly the Kamchatka Peninsula (Lee, 1982). H. minjaii I.K. Lee is present in the Aleutian Islands where it is parasitised by Neohalosacciocolax aleutica I.K. Lee and Kurogi (q.v.) and in Pacific Russia (Klochkova and Selivanova 1989). Many of the species, including H. hydrophorum (Postels and Ruprecht) Kützing, the type, require further investigation. A saccate appearance does not guarantee that the entity in question is a Halosaccion as some Devaleraea species are also saccate. Oates (1986) concluded after a detailed study of photosynthesis in H. americanum that its saccate form was of considerable ecological benefit to it, particularly in its ability to retain seawater, which ameliorates desiccation and allows the plant to be almost as efficient at photosynthesis out of water as it is in water. Mitman and Phinney (1985) found that on germination in laboratory culture about half of the tetraspores of H. americanum formed carpogonia very rapidly; it was possible to fertilize these female plants with spermatia from wild male plants, and saccate plants up to 1 cm long developed over a 6-month period, which the authors reasonably assume are tetrasporangial plants. The life history of Halosaccion thus appears to be similar to that of Palmaria and Devaleraea (q.v.)

Numbers of names and species: There are 30 species names in the database at present, as well as 37 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 8 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 16 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=36653

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 28 July 2021.

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