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Apora Gunnerus, 1768, nom. rejic.

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Hapalidiaceae
Subfamily Melobesioideae

Holotype species: Apora polymorpha Gunnerus

Currently accepted name for the type species: Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine

Original publication and holotype designation: Gunnerus, J.E. (1768). Om nogle norske Coraller [On some Norwegian corals]. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 4: 38-73, pls 1-4, 8, 10, 11, 15.
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Precise date of publication1768 (more precise date not determined).

Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Phymatolithon.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

The generic name Apora is typified (ICBN Art. 10.1) by the type of A. polymorpha Gunnerus, nom. illeg., the only species originally included in the genus. Although Gunnerus based his species name on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, his binomial is correctly cited as Apora polymorpha Gunnerus and not A. polymorpha (Linnaeus) Gunnerus because Millepora polymorpha is illegitimate (see below) and thus cannot serve as a basionym (ICBN Art. 45.3). Apora polymorpha Gunnerus is considered to be a new name (ICBN Art. 58) but is also illegitimate because Gunnerus did not explicitly exclude the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas (see ICBN Art. 58, Note 1) from his species.

Apora Gunnerus (1768) is a validly published generic name but formally rejected in favour of Phymatolithon Foslie (1898), which is conserved under ICBN Art. 14 (see ICBN Appendix VII for definition of a conserved name). Phymatolithon is listed in the Nomina Generica Conservanda (ICBN Appendix III, A9), and in accordance with ICBN Art. 14.4, Phymatolithon is conserved against all homotypic synonyms, including Apora (see below).

Both Apora and Phymatolithon are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (1767: 1285), a superfluous substitute name for Millepora calcarea Pallas (1766: 265) and thus illegitimate under ICBN Art. 52. In accordance with ICBN Art.7.5, Millepora polymorpha is automatically typified by the type of M. calcarea, the name that should have been adopted under the rules. Because the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas typifies the name Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (and thus the names Apora polymorpha Gunnerus and Phymatolithon polymorphum Foslie), it also typifies the generic names Apora and Phymatolithon (ICBN Art. 10.1).

The current correct name (see ICBN Appendix VII for definition) for Millepora calcarea is Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin (1970: 100). Details are provided in Woelkerling & Irvine (1986); also see the AlgaeBase entry for Phymatolithon.

The application of ICBN Art 45.3 & Art. 58 in determining authorship and illegitimacy was ascertained in e-mail correspondence in May 2009 with Paul Silva (Chairman, Permanent Nomenclature Committee for Algae) and John McNeill (Chairman, Editorial Committee for the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005). - (17 Jul 2009) -

Taxonomic notes
test - (21 Jul 2009) - Pier Kuipers

Comments: Seven generic names are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus and thus are ultimately typified by the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas. Chronologically these are Apora Gunnerus (1768), Nullipora Lamarck (1801), Agardhina Nardo (1834), Agardhia Meneghini (1838), Juergensia Reichenbach (1841), Phymatolithon Foslie (1898) and Eleutherospora Heydrich (1900). Because Phymatolithon is a conserved name, it automatically takes precedence over the other six names, which must be rejected under ICBN Art. 14.4, irrespective of when they were validly published. Separate entries for each name are provided in AlgaeBase.

An account of the epitype specimen of Millepora calcarea Pallas, the correct name for Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus is provided by Woelkerling & Irvine (1986, as Phymatolithon calcareum).

Changes in the ICBN necessitated an update (Spencer et al. 2009: 253) to the original typification (Woelkerling & Irvine 1986 58) of Millepora calcarea; the species is now lectotypified by an illustration (Ellis 1755, Tab. 27, Fig. C) cited in the protologue (Pallas 1766: 265) and epitypified by BM 000562555 (Algal Box Collection 1626) housed in the Natural History Museum , London. Further information is provided in the AlgaeBase entry for Phymatolithon.

Numbers of names and species: There is only one species or infraspecific name in the database at present.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.

Ellis, J. (1755). An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype taken near the North Pole, by the whale-fishers, in the summer 1753. pp. [i]-xvii, [10 p. cont., err.], [i]-i03, frontispiece, pl. 1-37 [+2 unnumbered], copperplate. London: Printed for the Authors;. and Sold by A. Millar, in the Strand; J. and J. Rivington, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall.

Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Die Lithothamnien von Helgoland. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F. 4 (Abt. Helgoland): 63-82, pl. 2.

Lamarck, J.B. de (1801). Systeme des Animaux sans vertebres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'après la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Hist. Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées. Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République.. pp. i-viii, 1-432. Paris: Chez l'Auteur, au Muséum d'Hist[oire] Naturelle; Chez Derteville, Libraire, rue du Battoir n° 16, quartier de l'Odéon..

Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. Editio duodecima, reformata. pp. 533-1327 [1328] [+ 1-36]. Homiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Meneghini, G. (1838). Cenni sulla organographia e fisiologia delle alghe. Nuovi Saggi della [Cesarea] Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Padova 4: 325-388.

Nardo, G.D. (1834). De corallinis ac nulliporis auct. Isis von Oken 1834(1): 673-675.

Pallas, P.S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adurnbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymis. pp. [i]-xvi + [17]-451. Hagae-Comitum ['s Gravenhage; The Hague]: apud Petrum van Cleef.

Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1841). Repertorium herbarii, sive, Nomenclator generum plantarum systematicus synonymicus et alphabeticus ad usum practicum accommodatus... pp. i-xxv, 1-214, 1-240. Dresden: Arnold.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Irvine, L.M. (1986). The typification and status of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 21: 55-80, 18 figs.

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Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 16 February 2017 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 June 2021.

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