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Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Corallinales
Family Lithothamniaceae
Tribe Phymatolitheae
Genus Phymatolithon

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
upper subtidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
upper subtidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Roundstone, Co. Galway; with Butterfish (Pholis gunnellus). 24 Oct 2010. Louise Scally. © Louise Scally (lscally@biodiversityresearch.ie).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Trá an Dóiín, an Cheathrú Rua, Connemara; coral strand. 05 May 2008. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; collection of maerl for agricultural purposes. 10 Jun 1972. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; collection of maerl for agricultural purposes. 10 Jun 1972. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; collection of maerl for agricultural purposes. 10 Jun 1972. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; collection of maerl for agricultural purposes. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; collection of maerl for agricultural purposes. 10 Jun 1972. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
Iles de Glenán, Brittany, France; colelction of maerl for agricultural purposes. 10 Jun 1972. Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk). © Gerald Blunden (gerald.blunden@port.ac.uk).

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Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine
© Mirella Coppola di Canzano (mirella.coppoladicanzano@fastwebnet.it)

Publication details
Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine 1986: 75

Published in: Woelkerling, W.J. & Irvine, L.M. (1986). The typification and status of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 21: 55-80, 18 figs.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Phymatolithon is Phymatolithon polymorphum Foslie.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Millepora calcarea Pallas

Type information
Neotype locality: Falmouth Harbour, Cornwall, England (Chamberlain & Irvine 1994: 212). Neotype: W.F. Farnham; 11.xii.1983; subtidal. BM Box 1626 (Chamberlain & Irvine 1994: 212). Notes: Chamberlain & Irvine (1994) recommend consulting Woelkerling & Irvine (1986a: figs 1,15) for more information on the neotype of this species. Isoneotypes: BM, LTB

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), chalky, limy (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Millepora calcarea Pallas 1766
Nullipora calcareum (Pallas) Lamarck 1801
Melobesia calcarea (Pallas) Harvey 1849
Spongites calcareus (Pallas) Kützing 1849
Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas) Areschoug 1852
Lithophyllum calcareum (Pallas) Foslie 1898
Paraspora calcarea (Pallas) Heydrich 1908

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus 1767
Apora polymorpha Gunnerus 1768
Corallium anglicum J.Ellis 1768
Nullipora nodulosa Lamarck 1801
Millepora informis Lamarck 1816
Nullipora informis (Lamarck) Schweigger 1819
Millepora cervicornis J.V.Lamouroux 1821
Nullipora cervicornis Blainville 1834
Nullipora polymorpha Nardo 1834
Pocillopora polymorpha Ehrenberg 1834
Melobesia compressa M'Calla ex Harvey 1849
Nullipora fragilis M'Calla 1849
Spongites polymorpha Kützing 1849
Melobesia polymorpha Harvey 1851
Lithothamnion polymorphum Areschoug 1852
Lithothamnion corallioides f. subsimplex Batters 1892
Lithothamnion corallioides f. australe Foslie 1895
Lithothamnion calcareum f. australe Foslie 1895
Lithothamnion calcareum f. compressum (M'Calla ex Harvey) Foslie 1897
Lithothamnion calcareum f. attenuatum Foslie 1897
Phymatolithon polymorphum Foslie 1898
Lithophyllum calcareum f. attenuatum (Foslie) Foslie 1898
Lithothamnion squarrulosum f. palmatifidum Foslie 1899
Lithothamnion squarrulosum f. subsimplex (Batters) Foslie 1899
Lithothamnion squarrulosum Foslie 1899
Lithothamnion squarrulosum f. australe Foslie 1899
Lithothamnion calcareum f. subsimplex (Batters) Foslie 1900
Eleutherospora polymorpha Heydrich 1900
Lithothamnion calcareum f. palmatifidum (Foslie) Foslie 1900
Lithothamnion calcareum f. squarrulosum (Foslie) Foslie 1900
Lithothamnion calcareum f. validum Foslie 1900
Paraspora fruticulosa f. compressa (M'Calla ex Harvey) Heydrich 1908
Paraspora fruticulosa f. palmatifida (Foslie) Heydrich 1908
Paraspora fruticulosa f. squarrulosa (Foslie) Heydrich 1908
Lithothamnion calcareum f. primiramosum Heydrich 1911
Lithothamnion calcareum var. compressum (M'Calla ex Harvey) Me.Lemoine 1913
Lithothamnion calcareum var. compressum (M'Calla ex Harvey) Me.Lemoine 1913
Lithothamnion calcareum var. squarrulosum (Foslie) Me.Lemoine 1913
Lithothamnion hamelii Me.Lemoine 1931
Lithothamnion calcareum f. pseudoflabelligerum Cabioch 1966
Lithothamnion calcareum f. pseudosubvalidum Cabioch 1966
Lithothamnion calcareum f. simpliusculum Cabioch 1966
Phymatolithon calcareum f. squarrulosum (Foslie) Benhissoune, Boudouresque, Perret-Boudouresque & Verlaque 2002
Phymatolithon calcareum f. compressum (M'Calla ex Harvey) Benhissoune, Boudouresque, Perret-Boudouresque & Verlaque 2002

Nomenclatural notes
According to Athanasiadis (2016: 239), "The combination generally attributed to Adey et McKibbin (1970: 100) who cited the baslonym as 'Mlllepora calcarea Pallas, 1766 Elenchus Zoophytorum' without page number. Woelkerling & Irvine (1986) effectuated the transfer, attributing it to 'Adey & McKibbin', but the latter authors were not involved in that work." - (6 Apr 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine)
Breton: Maërl (Anon. 2000).

English: Maerl (Bunker et al. 2010).

Description
Fragile, reddish-violet, branched, calcareous fronds; branches 2-3 mm diam.; very variable in form and difficult to identify with certainty; commonest form resemble stag's horns of irregular diameter.

Habitat
Free-living in clear, clean water from 0-25 m, occasionally to 32 m, forming extensive beds of live and dead material, particularly where there are subtidal currents. It is the main constituent of maërl. Widely distributed, abundant. SW England (Cornwall), SW and W Ireland (notably Bantry Bay and Galway Bay), N to Shetland. In a few areas on the W coast of Ireland, beaches almost entirely composed of dead fragments of maërl are found; perhaps the best-known of these is Trá an Dóilín near An Chéathrú Rua (Carraroe) and several at Ballconeeley in Co. Galway.

Similar species
Lithothamnion corallioides

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.

Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Blake, C. & Maggs, C.A. (2003). Comparative growth rates and internal banding periodicity of maerl species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from northern Europe. Phycologia 42: 606-612.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Bressan, G. & Babbini, L. (2003). Biodiversità marina delle coste Italiane: Corallinales del Mar Mediterraneo: guida all deteminazione. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(Suppl. 2): 1-237.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Alongi, G. (2017). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Rhodophyta (Rhodymeniophycidae escluse). Bollettino Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania 50(380): 1-391, 53 pls.

Hernández-Kantún, J.J., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Peña, V., Maggs, C.A. & Rindi, F. (2015). Phylogenetic analysis of rhodolith formation in the Corallinales (Rhodophyte). European Journal of Phycology 50(1): 46-61.

Klochkova, N.G., Korolyova, T.N. & Kusidi, A.E. (2009). [Atlas of marine algae of Kamchatka and surrounding areas. Vol. 2. Red seaweeds]. pp. 1-301. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: KamchatNIRO Press. [in Russian]

Konar, B., Riosmena-Rodriguez, R. & Iken, K. (2006). Rhodolith bed: a newly discovered habitat in the North Pacific Ocean. Botanica Marina 49: 355-359.

Pardo, C., Pena, V., Bárbara, I., Valero, M. & Barreiro, R. (2014). Development and multiplexing of the first microsatellite markers in the coralline red alga (Phymatolithon calcareum (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(5): 474-479.

Peña, V., Hernández-Kantún, J., Grall, J., Pardo, C., López, l.., Bárbara, I., Le Gall, L & Barreiro, R. (2014). Detection of gametophytes in the maerl-forming species Phymatolithon calcareum (Melobesioideae, Corallinales) assesed by DNA barcoding. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(1): 15-25.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Woelkerling, W.J. (1998). Lamarck's nullipores. In: Non-geniculate Coralline Red Algae and the Paris Muséum: Systematics and Scientific History. (Woelkerling, W.J. & Lamy, D. Eds), pp. 101-404. Paris: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum/A.D.A.C.

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 20 December 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 29864 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.
Bohm, L., Schramm, W., Rabsch, U. (1978). Ecological and physiological aspects of some coralline algae from the Western Baltic. Calcium uptake and skeleton formation in Phymatolithon calcareum. Kieler Meeresforschungen 4: 282-288.
Mendoza, M.L. & Cabioch, J. (1998). Étude comparée de la reproduction de Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin et Lithothamnion corallioides (P. & H. Crouan) P. & H. Crouan (Corallinales, Rhodophyta), et reconsidérations sur la définition des genres. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 1433-1445.
Pardo, C., Pena, V., Bárbara, I., Valero, M. & Barreiro, R. (2014). Development and multiplexing of the first microsatellite markers in the coralline red alga (Phymatolithon calcareum (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(5): 474-479.
Pardo, C., Peña, V., Bárbara, I., Valero, M. & Barreiro, R. (2015). Poster: A pioneer microsatellite study of clonality in a major maerl-forming species Phymatolithon calcareum (Rhodophyta) in Atlantic Europe. European Journal of Phycology 50 (S1): 128-128.
Peña, V. & Bárbara, I. (2004). Diferenciación morfológica y anatómica entre Lithothamnion corallioides y Phymatolithon calcareum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) en dos bancos de maërl de la Ría de Arousa (N.O. Península Ibérica). Anales de Biología 26: 21-27.
Peña, V., Hernández-Kantún, J., Grall, J., Pardo, C., López, l.., Bárbara, I., Le Gall, L & Barreiro, R. (2014). Detection of gametophytes in the maerl-forming species Phymatolithon calcareum (Melobesioideae, Corallinales) assesed by DNA barcoding. Cryptogamie Algologie 35(1): 15-25.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 October 2019.

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