157,356 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,048 images, 60,808 bibliographic items, 456,098 distributional records.

Chilomonas Ehrenberg, 1831

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Cryptophyta
Class Cryptophyceae
Order Cryptomonadales
Family Cryptomonadaceae

Lectotype species: Chilomonas paramaecium Ehrenberg

Currently accepted name for the type species: Cryptomonas paramaecium (Ehrenberg) Hoef-Emden & Melkonian

Original publication:Ehrenberg, C.G. (1831). Animalia evertebrata exclusis insectis Series Prima cum tabularum decase prima. In: Symbolae physicae. (Hemprich, P.C. & Ehrenberg, C.G. Eds), pp. [1-71]. Berolini [Berlin]: ex officina academica.
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Type designated in Senn, G. (1900). Flagellata. In: Die nat├╝rlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten. I. Teil. Abteilung a. Schizophyta: Schizomycetes von W. Migula; Schizophyceae von 0. Kirchner; Flagellata: Pantostomatineae, Protomastigineae, Distomatineae, Chrysomonadineae, Cryptomonadineae, Chloromonadineae, Euglenineae, Anhang zu den Flagellata von G. Senn. (Engler, A. & Prantl, K. Eds), pp. 93-188. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.

Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Cryptomonas.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Description: Free-swimming, biflagellate monads, generally obovoid often with a recurved posterior sometimes produced to acutely pointed; not known to produce palmelloid colonies. A longitudinal furrow extends posteriorly from the vestibulum and transforms into a sack-like gullet lined with many rows of ejectisomes. With a single nucleomorph but lacking a chloroplast and pyrenoid; with a prolific accumulation of peripheral starch granules. Periplast with a laminate inner component and a superficial layer of fine fibrillar material. Sexual reproduction is unknown; reproduction being through simple cell division. Cyst formation is unknown. Mitosis has been examined by light microscopy and there are several reports on the number of chromosomes in Chilomonas paramecium. The parasite Spiromonas perforans has been observed to infect Chilomonas paramecium. A slightly unusual ultrastructure in that the plastidial complex lacks a chloroplast and pyrenoid. Instead, a leucoplast is present with the nucleomorph and starch occupying the periplastidial compartment. The inner periplast component is porous with ejectisomes occupying the pores and providing attachment to the plasma membrane. The flagellar apparatus has been reconstructed; the rhizostyle has keel-like projections running down its convex surface. A detailed ultrastructure of the ejectisomes has been reported. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution in freshwater habitats, including temporary ponds, rivers and lakes. Some species have been described from brackish and marine habitats. Most species are known only from European waters. It is probable that the number of species will be reduced after taxonomic revision. There is an isolated report of Chilomonas paramecium being toxic. The 16s-like ribosomal RNA gene has been cloned from the nucleomorph genome of Chilomonas paramecium. It is considered that the presence of the nucleomorph in Chilomonas paramecium indicates that its heterotrophic state is secondarily derived.

Information kindly contributed by D.R.A. Hill but may now be outdated.

Numbers of names and species: There are 10 species names in the database at present, as well as 2 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 4 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 January 2020.

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