158,889 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,385 images, 61,555 bibliographic items, 457,092 distributional records.

Citharistes Stein, 1883

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Dinophysales
Family Dinophysaceae

Holotype species: Citharistes regius Stein

Original publication and holotype designation: Stein, F. von (1883). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. II. Hälfte die Naturgeschichte der Arthrodelen Flagellaten. pp. 1-30, pls I-XXV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Description: Medium-sized (35-70µm) flagellate with a reversed C-shaped body in lateral view. Epicone is low and disk-shaped, cingulum narrow except dorsally where it forms the large phaeosome chamber, occupying the concavity of the "C". Anterior cingular list is small and distally flared as is, according to Balech (1971b), the posterior cingular list. Phaesome chamber formed by lists of the 2 large dorsal hypothecal plates; other authors claim it is formed by cingular lists, (e. g Kofoid and Skogsberg (1928), Taylor (1976)) and has 2 ribs, one on each side of the saggittal suture of the hypothecal plates arising on the tips of the posterior shank of the horseshoe-shaped body. Only a small pore connects the phaesome chamber, in which are the symbionts, with the surrounding water. The phaesomes are blue-greens probably of the genus Synechococcus. No chloroplasts. The only specimen examined by electron microscopy showed no food vacuoles but starch-like granules in the cytoplasm. Sexual reproduction and cyst formation not known. Marine oceanic plankton, in tropical and subtropical regions, rarely reported; seem to be restricted to deeper waters.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 2 species names in the database at present, of which 2 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Handy, S.M., Bachvaroff, T.R., Timme, R.E., Coats, D.W., Kim, S. & Delwiche, C.F. (2009). Phylogeny of four dinophysiacean genera (Dinophyceae, Dinophysiales) based on rDNA sequences from single cells and environmental samples. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1163-1174.

Hastrup Jensen, M. & Daugbjerg, N. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of selected species of the order Dinophysiales (Dinophyceae) - testing the hypothesis of a dinophysioid radiation. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1136-1152.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44625

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 13 August 2020.

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