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158,879 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,385 images, 61,551 bibliographic items, 457,090 distributional records.

Histioneis Stein, 1883

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Dinophysales
Family Dinophysaceae

Holotype species: Histioneis remora F.Stein

Original publication and holotype designation: Stein, F. von (1883). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. II. Hälfte die Naturgeschichte der Arthrodelen Flagellaten. pp. 1-30, pls I-XXV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Nomenclatural notes
Unclear whether this genus name is masculine or feminine. - (11 Apr 2018) - M.D. Guiry

Description: Medium-sized to large (30-150 µm) flagellate with elaborate to bizarre wings and lists. Cell body divided by large cingular lists into a small to very much reduced epicone, nearly flat to rather strongly vaulted, and a larger ovoid to naviculoid hypocone as seen from the lateral side. Only in very few species the hypocone forms a conspicuous antapical horn. Many species are laterally very much compressed. As the epicone is small, the circular cingulum is always displaced to the anterior part of the cell. The hypothecal cingular lists are bent to the longitudinal axis extending to the apex, forming a wide cylinder. In some species the dorsal and ventral width is equal or subequal, in others it may be much higher dorsally than ventrally. The epithecal cingular lists also are bent to the longitudinal axis, closed and funnel-shaped resulting in a large chamber between the hypothecal and epithecal cingular lists. In this chamber phaeosomes occur, namely photosynthetic symbiotic unicellular bluegreens of the genus Synechococcus. The sulcal lists are very elaborate. The function of these lists is unknown, as living specimens have been reported to be embedded in large ovoid mucus beds. Several species show a green autofluorescence of their cytoplasm, excited by UV-light. Sexual reproduction and cyst formation not known. The biology of these organisms also is poorly known. Ultrastructural observations showed that apparently some of the symbiotic phaeosomes can be ingested and digested. Marine oceanic plankton in tropical and temperate waters, many species seem to be restricted to deeper waters.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 11 Apr 2018 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 92 species names in the database at present, as well as 1 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 78 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Gómez, F. (2005). Histioneis (Dinophysiales, Dinophyceae) from the western Pacific Ocean. Botanica Marina 48: 421-425.

Handy, S.M., Bachvaroff, T.R., Timme, R.E., Coats, D.W., Kim, S. & Delwiche, C.F. (2009). Phylogeny of four dinophysiacean genera (Dinophyceae, Dinophysiales) based on rDNA sequences from single cells and environmental samples. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1163-1174.

Hastrup Jensen, M. & Daugbjerg, N. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of selected species of the order Dinophysiales (Dinophyceae) - testing the hypothesis of a dinophysioid radiation. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1136-1152.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 11 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44649

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 August 2020.

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