161,678 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,723 images, 63,676 bibliographic items, 473,640 distributional records.

Symbiodinium Gert Hansen & Daugbjerg, 2009

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Suessiales
Family Symbiodiniaceae

Holotype species: Symbiodinium natans Gert Hansen & Daugbjerg

Original publication and holotype designation: Hansen, G. & Daugbjerg, N. (2009). Symbiodinium natans sp. nov.: a "free-living" dinoflagellate from Tenerife (Northeast-Atlantic Ocean). Journal of Phycology 45: 251-265.
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Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Zooxanthella.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Guiry, M.D. & Andersen, R.A. (2018). Validation of the generic name Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae, Suessiaceae) revisited and the reinstatement of Zooxanthella K.Brandt. Notulae Algarum 58: 1-5, no figs.

Description: Single cells of the coccoid phase spherical to broadly ellipsoidal. Mean coccoid cell sizes range from 8 to 10 ?m. Nucleus contains ~ 78 to 98 condensed chromosomes. Phylogenetically basal genus, includes species ecologies ranging from symbiotic to opportunistic or free-living. Globally distributed, most species regionally endemic. Constitutively release UV-adsorbing mycosporine-like amino acids when in culture. Many grow in culture media. Dinoflagellates whose partial sequences of LSU rDNA (containing the variable domains D1/D2) vary in nucleotide differences by no more than 5% from that of S. microadriaticum [KM972549] are defined as members of this genus.

Information kindly contributed by T.C. LaJeunesse <i>et al.</i> (2018). but may now be outdated.

Comments: Widely distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. The "zooxanthellae" of invertebrates are contributing a large amount to the carbon fixation and to the nutrition of corals. Up to 6 mg fixed C per m2 per day have been reported.

Numbers of names and species: There are 31 species names in the database at present, as well as 1 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 6 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Trench, R.K. & Blank, R.J. (1987). Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine invertebrates. Journal of Phycology 23: 469-481.

Leggat, W., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Dove, S. & Yellowlees, D. (2007). Analysis of an EST library from the dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium sp.) symbiont of reef-building corals. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1010-1021.

Takahashi, K., Sarai, C. & Iwataki, M. (2014). Morphology of two marine woloszynskioid dinoflagellates, Biecheleria brevisulcata sp. nov. and Biecheleriopsis adriatica (Suessiaceae, Dinophyceae) from Japanese coasts. Phycologia 53(1): 52-65.

Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Freudenthal, H.D. (1962). Symbiodinium gen. nov. and Symbiodinium microadriaticum sp. nov., a zooxanthella: taxonomy, life cycles and morphology. Journal of Protozoology 9: 45-52, 18 figs.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 09 October 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44695

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 June 2021.

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