163,902 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,101 bibliographic items, 483,547 distributional records.

Warnowia Lindemann, 1928

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Warnowiaceae

Lectotype species: Warnowia fusus (Schütt) Lindemann

Original publication:Lindemann, E. (1928). Abteilung Peridineae (Dinoflagellatae). In: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtgeren Arten inbesodere den Nutzpflanzen unter Mirwirkung zahlreichter hervorrangender Fachgelehrten begründet vom A. Engler und K. Prantl. Zweite Stark. (Engler, A. Eds), pp. [3]-104. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engleman.
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Type designated in Kofoid, C.A. & Swezy, O. (1921). The free-living unarmored Dinoflagellata. Memoirs of the University of California 5: i-viii, 1-562.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-64, 103-139. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Description: Unicellular, small to large (30-150 µm) long biflagellated, heterodynamic cells with body torsion. Therefore, the cingulum makes more than one loop, up to three. Consequently, the sulcus is not a straight furrow but is twisted, encircling the body in some species more than 2 times. In addition, it may extend to the apex, making up to two apical loops. The cingulum and sulcus terminate near the posterior pole, sometimes extending on a more or less flexible protuberance or tentacle. The cells are characterized by a conspicuous ocelloid, composed by a lens, a retinoid and a pigment cup. This organelle is derived from chloroplasts and in some species chlorophyll can be detected by epifluorescence microscopy in the pigment cup. During binary cell division, the ocelloid is reorganized, the lens is fragmented. These stages have been regarded earlier as separate taxa of different subgenera. Therefore the taxonomy of the species and the separation to other described genera is difficult. Thus, Greuet (1973) regard the genus Protopsis Kofoid and Swezy as not distinct from Warnowia, in addition, Sournia (1986) regards also the genus Proterythropsis Kofoid and Swezy as congeneric with Warnowia. Trichocysts are absent, separating the species of Warnowia from those of the similar organized species of the genus Nematodinium. Nucleus of the dinokaryon type, chloroplasts absent or present, some species mixotrophic. Cells may be enclosed in mucoid temporary cysts but resting cysts and sexual reproduction so far not reported. Habitat: Marine plankton from tropical to arctic waters, one species in the sea ice of polar waters.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 23 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Dodge (1982: 116) notes recent work by Greuet (1972) has suggested that some organisms which have been designated species of Protopsis may in fact be stages in the life-cycle of Warnowia

Numbers of names and species: There are 25 species names in the database at present, of which 25 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 23 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44700

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 October 2021.

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