157,596 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,210 images, 61,015 bibliographic items, 459,891 distributional records.

Phalacroma Stein, 1883

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Dinophysiales
Family Oxyphysaceae

Lectotype species: Phalacroma porodictyum F.Stein

Original publication and holotype designation: Stein, F. von (1883). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. II. Hälfte die Naturgeschichte der Arthrodelen Flagellaten. pp. 1-30, pls I-XXV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Taxonomic notes
Description emended by Jensen & Daugbjerg (2009: 1147). - (18 Dec 2009) - Wendy Guiry

According to Gomez et al. (2011), this is not in the Dinophysiaceae s.s. (Dinophysis, Ornithocercus, Histioneis) but is possibly a part of a separate family for the clade of the type and most of the Phalacroma species. They subdivide the Phalacroma clade into two subclades: the Phalacroma subclade (for the type species, P. porodictyon and P. favus, P. rotundatum, P. doryphorum and Oxyphysis) and subclade Rapa (P. parvulum, P. mitra, P. rapa). Gomez et al. (2011: 405) suggest Oxyphysaceae or a new family name, tentatively "Phalacromaceae" as a possible family name for Phalacroma but note that this change would need a clear definition of diagnostic characters for the members of the putative separate family. - (22 Aug 2011) - Wendy Guiry

Description: Medium-sized ( µm) more or less laterally compressed flagellates with a theca composed of cellulosic plates identical in plate formula to Dinophysis. Has been differentiated from Dinophysis Ehrenberg only by the size of the epicone which is in Phalacroma not so far reduced as in Dinophysis. As there are many integrating forms and no difference in the plate pattern, independently Abé (1967) and Balech (1967) have considered Phalacroma synonymous with Dinophysis. Phalacroma is a later homonym of a trilobite and has been replaced by Prodinophysis Balech (1944) but is the correct name under the botanical nomenclature. Emended by Hastrup Jensen & Daugberg (2009: 1147).

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 102 species names in the database at present, as well as 4 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 53 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Handy, S.M., Bachvaroff, T.R., Timme, R.E., Coats, D.W., Kim, S. & Delwiche, C.F. (2009). Phylogeny of four dinophysiacean genera (Dinophyceae, Dinophysiales) based on rDNA sequences from single cells and environmental samples. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1163-1174.

Hastrup Jensen, M. & Daugbjerg, N. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of selected species of the order Dinophysiales (Dinophyceae) - testing the hypothesis of a dinophysioid radiation. Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1136-1152.

Gómez, F., López-García, P. & Moreira, D. (2011). Molecular phylogeny of dinophysoid dinoflagellates: the systematic position of Oxyphysis oxytoxoides and the Dinophysis hastata group (Dinophysales, Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47(2): 393-406.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 09 September 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=44962

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 29 February 2020.

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