Gambierdiscus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo, 1979

Holotype species: Gambierdiscus toxicus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo

Original publication and holotype designation: Adachi, R. & Fukuyo, Y. (1979). The thecal structure of a marine toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus gen. et spec. nov. collected in a ciguatera-endemic area. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 45(1): 67-71.

Description: Biflagellate, heterodynamic, lens-shaped cells, transdiameter up to 140µm, dorsoventral up to 100 &m diam., apical- antapically compress, length up to 60 &m. Cell wall composed of cellulosic thecal plates, plate formula: Po, 3', 7", 6c, 8s, 6"', 1p, 1"". The plate formula is interpreted differently by various authors, see discussion of Durant-Clément and Couté (1991). The apical pore plate is oval to ellipsoidal with a characteristic fishhook-shaped pore. The cingulum is narrow and deeply impressed, median and slightly displaced. The sulcus is restricted to the hyposome, broad, not extending to the antapex. The transverse and longitudinal flagellum are beating in the cingulum and sulcus respectively. Chloroplasts numerous, greenish-yellow to yellow-brown. Nucleus of the dinokaryon-type, horseshoe- to v-shaped, median dorsally located. Trichocysts present.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 2024-06-13 by M.D. Guiry.

Taxonomic status: This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as masculine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Tillmann, U., Bantle, A., Krock, B., Elbrächter, M & Gottschling, M. (2021). Recommendations for epitypification of dinophytes exemplified by Lingulodinium polyedra and molecular phylogenetics of the Gonyaulacales based on curated rRNA sequence data. Harmful Algae 103: [1-16], 8 figs, 3 tables.

Comments: Most populations produce very potent toxins causing ciguatera-intoxication: maitotoxin and various ciguatera-analogs. Toxin-production is influenced by external factors as temperature, salinity or light. Some populations, such as those found in Bermuda, are non-toxic. Other populations produce gambieric acid, a potent antifungal compound.

Habitat: Tropical marine coastal zones, benthic or epiphytic on corals, macroalgae coral rubber or floating algae or detritus. Populations may reach high densities, up to 5.0 x 105 cells-1 gram-1 fresh weight macroalgae have been recorded.

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 13 June 2024. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 16 July 2024

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