163,909 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,101 bibliographic items, 484,276 distributional records.

Gambierdiscus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo, 1979

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Pyrocystaceae
Subfamily Gambierdiscoideae

Holotype species: Gambierdiscus toxicus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo

Original publication and holotype designation: Adachi, R. & Fukuyo, Y. (1979). The thecal structure of a marine toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus gen. et spec. nov. collected in a ciguatera-endemic area. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 45(1): 67-71.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as masculine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Tillmann, U., Bantle, A., Krock, B., Elbrächter, M & Gottschling, M. (2021). Recommendations for epitypification of dinophytes exemplified by Lingulodinium polyedra and molecular phylogenetics of the Gonyaulacales based on curated rRNA sequence data. Harmful Algae 103: [1-16], 8 figs, 3 tables.

Description: Biflagellate, heterodynamic, lens-shaped cells, transdiameter up to 140µm, dorsoventral up to 100 &m diam., apical- antapically compress, length up to 60 &m. Cell wall composed of cellulosic thecal plates, plate formula: Po, 3', 7", 6c, 8s, 6"', 1p, 1"". The plate formula is interpreted differently by various authors, see discussion of Durant-Clément and Couté (1991). The apical pore plate is oval to ellipsoidal with a characteristic fishhook-shaped pore. The cingulum is narrow and deeply impressed, median and slightly displaced. The sulcus is restricted to the hyposome, broad, not extending to the antapex. The transverse and longitudinal flagellum are beating in the cingulum and sulcus respectively. Chloroplasts numerous, greenish-yellow to yellow-brown. Nucleus of the dinokaryon-type, horseshoe- to v-shaped, median dorsally located. Trichocysts present.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 5 Mar 2021 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Most populations produce very potent toxins causing ciguatera-intoxication: maitotoxin and various ciguatera-analogs. Toxin-production is influenced by external factors as temperature, salinity or light. Some populations, such as those found in Bermuda, are non-toxic. Other populations produce gambieric acid, a potent antifungal compound.

Habitat: Tropical marine coastal zones, benthic or epiphytic on corals, macroalgae coral rubber or floating algae or detritus. Populations may reach high densities, up to 5.0 x 105 cells-1 gram-1 fresh weight macroalgae have been recorded.

Numbers of names and species: There are 20 species names in the database at present, of which 18 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 16 April 2003 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 March 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=45535

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 October 2021.

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