161,060 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,719 images, 62,646 bibliographic items, 473,224 distributional records.

Spiniferodinium T.Horiguchi & M.Chihara, 1987

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae

Holotype species: Spiniferodinium galeiforme T.Horiguchi & M.Chihara

Original publication and holotype designation: Horiguchi, T. & Chihara, M. (1987). Spiniferodinium galeiforme, a new genus and species of benthic dinoflagellates (Phytodiniales, Pyrrhophyta) from Japan. Phycologia 26(4): 478-487.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Taxonomic notes
Horiguchi & Chihara (1987) place this genus in the Phytodiniales, Pyrrhophyta but according to Horiguchi et al. (2011), it is a member of the Gymnodinium clade sensu stricto. - (9 Dec 2011) - Wendy Guiry

Description: Nonmotile vegetative cells alternate with short-lived gymnodinoid zoospores. The nonmotile stage is unicellular, ovoid in shape (about 30-26 ┬Ám) and dorsiventrally compressed. They are epilithic or epiphytic, possessing a helmet-shaped cell covering, which is transparent, rigid and is covered by many small, regularly distributed spines. It consists of an outer and inner component. The outer component bears the spines, the inner part is similar to the amphiesma of unarmored dinoflagellates. The cytoplasm contains a typical dinokaryotic nucleus, and many ellipsoidal chloroplasts. These benthic nonmotile unicellular stages produce 2 (1-4) zoospores. In most cases release takes place at the onset of the light period. Several minutes before liberation, the zoospores produce a pseudopodium-like cytoplasmic extension outside the cell and escape by amoeboid movement from the mother cell between the shell and the substratum. The gymnodinoid daughter cells swim for a while and then attach to a substratum by their ventral side. Shortly thereafter the formation of the shell takes place which lasts only a few seconds. At this stage, both longitudinal and transverse grooves are still visible. About one day later the cell divides into new daughter cells but they remain inside the mother cell one or 2 more days before liberation. Sexual processes unknown. Marine, epilithic or epiphytic in sandy beaches; found only on a tropical island of Japan.

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 23 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 4 species names in the database at present, of which 2 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Horiguchi, T., Hayashi, Y., Kudo, H. & Hara, Y. (2011). A new benthic dinoflagellate Spiniferodinium palauense sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) from Palau. Phycologia 50(6): 616-623.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 16 April 2003 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 23 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=46263

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 April 2021.

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