Corallina Linnaeus, 1758

Lectotype species: Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

Original publication: Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Editio decima revisa. Vol. 1 pp. [i-iv], [1]-823. Holmiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.

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Type designated in: Schmitz, F. (1889). Systematische √úbersicht der bisher bekannten Gattungen der Florideen. Flora oder Allgemeine botanische Zeitung 72: 435-456, pl. XXI.

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Precise date of publication: 1 January 1758

Description: Thalli comprising extensive crustose holdfasts bearing one to several erect, pinnately branched, articulated fronds. Fronds of calcified, wedge-shaped intergenicula separated by uncalcified genicula. Intergenicula of arching tiers of medullary cells surrounded by a photosynthetic cortex and a unistratose layer of epithallial cells. Cells in contiguous filaments often fusing, with nuclear migration occurring between cells; secondary pit-connections lacking. Genicula of single tiers of long, straight, unbranched cells uncalcified except where they project into neighboring intergenicula. Trichocytes present, but often not evident; trichocyte bases round in surface view, pores central. Reproductive cells forming within conceptacles originating in medullary meristems at branch apices in line with intergenicular axes (axial conceptacles). At maturity, single swollen conceptacles terminating fertile intergenicu la. Conceptacle pores central. Pseudolateral conceptacles, when present, bulging conspicuously from intergenicular surfaces. Tetrasporangial conceptacles containing >30 mature tetrasporangia prior to spore discharge. Bisporangia rare. Sporangial initials dividing into young sporangia and stalk cells, subsequent development including sporangial enlargement, meiotic nuclear divisions, and simultaneous cytokineses forming zonate tetrasporangia. Enlarging post-meiotic sporangia with aggregated nuclear ER, many ribosomes, and other ultrastructural evidence of hyperactive nuclei. Conceptacles occasionally bearing surmounting branches. Sexual plants dioecious. Pore of each spermatangial conceptacle at tip of beak projecting from roof; lacking surmounting branches. Spermatangial mother cells and spermatangia produced from densely packed layer of basal cells on floor and walls of conceptacle chamber. Plastids degenerating in spermatangial mother cells as they bud off spermatangia, each of which has a nucleus-containing 'head' and an elongate 'tail.' Carpogonial conceptacles with extensive layer of supporting cells with carpogonial filaments. Trichogynes extending through pore when receptive. Each carposporangial conceptacle containing a broad, thin fusion cell with gonimoblast filaments arising from edges and sometimes from upper surface. Carposporangial conceptacles sometimes bearing branches. Spores germinating into crustose sporelings by the Corallina-type of spore germination. Subsequent growth into a slowly spreading crust from which fronds develop. Chromosome counts yield n = 24 (in Europe). Revised description (Hind & Saunders 2013: 107). Emend. Calderon & al. (2021: 1663).

Information contributed by: H.W. Johansen. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 2022-02-09 by G.M. Guiry.

Taxonomic status: This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as feminine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kylin, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. pp. i-xv, 1-673, 458 figs. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerups.

Comments: Corallina is widespread in shallow water on coasts with rocky substrates in temperate and boreal areas. Absent from tropical and some subtropical areas. Growth is best in moderately wave-exposed areas. Fronds exhibiting seasonality, including, in N. Japan, senescence and branch dehiscence during the fall and winter; on the other hand C. officinalis var. chilensis in S. California has least productivity and cover in summer. Distinctive sun- and shade-acclimatized thalli (C. officinalis var. chilensisin S. California), with higher productivity in unshaded habitats. Fronds live 1-3 years, providing habitats and refuge for small invertebrates, such as crustaceans and worms. Holdfasts significant in perpetuating cover (e.g., in S. California) by retaining coralline cover during disturbance and by hastening recovery afterward. Compared to fronds, holdfasts are tougher, more grazer resistant, and less productive. Compared to other seaweeds Corallina(and other corallines) has lowest calorific values. Often occurs as a turf with fronds that are morphological different from isolated individuals. In S. California and elsewhere Corallina is important anchor taxon in low intertidal turfs. Details of the transformation of spores to sporelings to young plants well studied by Cabioch, Chihara, Jones and Moorjani, and others. Species of the coralline Titanoderma frequently epiphytize intergenicula. Epithallial and meristematic cells have been studied by EM. Physiological and biochemical studies, many aimed at understanding calcification, have been provided by Borowitzka, Digby, Pentecost, and others. The growth and productivity of Corallina(C. officinalis var. chilensis in S. California) is enhanced near sewage outfalls, especially after a period when the plants acclimatize physiologically to sewage stress. Branch elongation rates 1.2 to more than 5 mm mo-1. Traditionally used as a vermifuge in Europe.

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

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G.M. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 09 February 2022. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 23 July 2024

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