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Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Laminariaceae
Genus Laminaria

Pictures

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Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Silver Strand, Co. Galway, Ireland. 05 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry.

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; a tangle!. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; plants at low water. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Brittany, 2011. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Brittany, 2011. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 03 Apr 2011. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry.

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Roscoff, 2001, stipe in TS. Ignacio Barbára. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
AlgaeBase image on the cover of Physiologia plantarum. 26 Mar 2009. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; stipe in section; note the oval outline
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux 1813: 42

Published in: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des Thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Laminaria.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus digitatus Hudson

Type information
Type locality: Habitat in rupibus marinis [Dwells on marine rocks, England] (Hudson 1762: 475).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), digitate, with leaflets radiating from tip of leaf-stalk (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus digitatus Hudson 1762
Ceramium digitatum (Hudson) Stackhouse 1797
Gigantea digitata (Hudson) Stackhouse 1816
Hafgygia digitata (Hudson) Kützing 1843
Saccharina digitata (Hudson) Kuntze 1891

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus bifurcatus Gunnerus 1766
Laminaria latifolia C.Agardh 1820
Laminaria leptopoda De la Pylaie 1824
Laminaria phycodendron De la Pylaie 1824
Laminaria conica Bory 1826
Laminaria leptopoda Bonnemaison ex Despréaux 1834
Laminaria bongardiana var. bifurcata (Gunnerus) Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Laminaria digitata var. latifolia (C.Agardh) Areschoug 1842
Laminaria ensifolia Kützing 1843
Laminaria digitata f. stenophylla Harvey 1851
Laminaria flexicaulis Le Jolis 1855
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ensifolia Le Jolis 1855
Laminaria flexicaulis var. cucullata Le Jolis 1856
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ovata Le Jolis 1856
Laminaria stenophylla (Harvey) J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. ensifolia (Kützing) J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. integrifolia J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. stenophylla (Harvey) Kleen 1874
Laminaria digitata f. latifolia (C.Agardh) Kjellman 1877
Laminaria digitata f. complanata Kjellman 1877
Laminaria digitata f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria cucullata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1883
Laminaria flexicaulis f. valida Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. valida (Foslie) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria digitata f. latilaciniata (Foslie) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria flexicaulis f. latilaciniata Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. ensifolia (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria cucullata f. typica Kjellman 1883
Laminaria intermedia Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata f. debilipes Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. longipes Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata f. grandifolia Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata var. valida (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata f. cuneata Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata var. debilipes (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata f. longipes (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata var. intermedia (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria cucullata f. longipes (Foslie) A.D.Zinova 1950
Saccharina bongardiana f. bifurcata Selivanova, Zhigadlova & G.I.Hansen 2007

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
red-ware {Eng}; sea-girdles {Eng}; sea-wand {Eng}; sea-ware {Eng}; seaweed {Eng}; seastaff {Eng}; oarweed {Eng}; laminaire digitTe {Fr}

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Created: 29 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 29 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 2649 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Ar Gall, E., Küpper, F.C. & Kloareg, B. (2004). A survey of iodine content in Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 47: 30-37.
Asensi, A., Ar Gall, E., Marie, D., Billot, C., Dion, P. & Kloareg, B. (2001). Clonal propagation of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) sporophytes through a diploid cell-filament suspension. Journal of Phycology 37: 411-417.
Bartsch, I., Vogt, J., Pehlke, C. & Hanelt, D. (2013). Prevailing sea surface temperatures inhibit summer reproduction of the kelp Laminaria digitata at Helgoland (North Sea). Journal of Phycology 49(6): 1061-1073.
Billot, C., Boury, S., Benet, H. & Kloareg, B. (1999). Development of RAPD markers for parentage analysis in Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 42: 307-314.
Billot, C., Engel, C.R., Rousvoal, S. & Kloareg, B. (2003). Current patterns, habitat discontinuities and population genetic structure: the case of the kelp Laminaria digitata in the English Channel. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 111-121.
Bringloe, T.T., Bartlett, C.A.B., Bergeron, E.S., Cripps, K.S.A., Daigle, N.J., Gallagher, P.O., Gallant, A.D., Giberson, R.O.J., Greenough, S.J., Lamb, J.M., Leonard, T.W., Mackay, J.A., McKenzie, A.D., Persaud, S.M., Sheng, T., Mills, A.M.E.S., Moore, T.E. & Saunder, G.W. (2018). Detecting Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes in red algae, with consideration of distribution patterns in the intertidal zone. Phycologia 57(1): 1-8.
Chapman, A., R. O. (1993). Hard data for matrix modelling of Laminaria digitata (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) populations. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 263-267.
Conolly, N.J. & Drew, E.A. (1985). Physiology of Laminaria III. Effect of a coastal eutrophication gradient on seasonal patterns of growth and tissue composition in L. digitata Lamour. and L. saccharina (L.) Lamour.. Mar. Ecol. 6: 181-195.
Corre, S. & Prieur, D. (1990). Density and morphology of epiphytic bacteria on the kelp Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 33: 515-523.
Cosson, J. & Gayral, P. (1979). Optimal conditions for growth and fertility of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) Gametophytes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 59-65.
Cosson, J. (1972). Action de la temperature et de la lumière sur l'émission des spores de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminaliela). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 2501-2504.
Cosson, J. (1973). Action de la température et de la lumière sur le développement du gamétophyte de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 276: 973-976.
Cosson, J. (1973). Influence des conditions de culture sur le développement de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycées, Laminariales). Soc Phycol de France Bull No 18: 104-112.
Cosson, J. (1975). Action des conditions d'éclairement sur la croissance des gamétophytes de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Soc Phycol de France Bull No 20: 50-54.
Cosson, J. (1976). Evolution de la fertilité des populations de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminariale) au cours de l'année. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 21: 28-34.
Cosson, J. (1977). Action de la durée d'éclairement sur la morphogénèse des gamétophytes de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Bulletin de la Société Phycologique de France 22: 19-26.
Cosson, J. (1999). Sur la disparition progressive de Laminaria digitata sur les côtes du Calvados (France). Cryptogamie Algologie 20: 35-42.
Cosson, J., Gayral, P. & Jacques, R. (1976). Action de la composition spectrale de la lumière sur la croissance et la reproduction des gamétophytes de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 283: 1293-1296.
Davidson, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1984). The osmotic significance of seasonal changes in the internal solute content of Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 19: 192.
Davison, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1985). Osmotic adjustment in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta) with particular references to seasonal changes in internal solute concentrations. Journal of Phycology 21: 41-50.
Davison, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1985). Osmotic adjustment in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta) with particular reference to seasonal changes in internal solute concentrations. Journal of Phycology 21: 41-50, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Davison, I.R. & Stewart, W.D.P. (1983). Seasonal variation of nitrate reductase activity in Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 18: 201-202.
Delebecq, G., Davoult, D., Janquin, M.-A., Oppliger, L.V., Menu, D., Dauvin, J.-C. & Gevaert, F. (2016). Photosynthetic response to light and temperature in Laminaria digitata gametophytes from two French populations. European Journal of Phycology 51(1): 71-82.
Floc'h, J.-Y. & Penot, M. (1976). Étude comparative du transport à longue distance de différents radioéléments dans le thalle de Laminaria digitata (Linné) Lamouroux. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 282: 989-992.
Floc'h, J.-Y. & Penot, M. (1981). Translocation of 32p and 86Rb in some brown algae (Laminaria digitata and Fucus vesiculosus): influence of metabolism and sinks. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 176-187.
Forster, R.M. & Dring, M.J. (1991). Blue light increases carbon supply rate in Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 26: 85.
Fries, L. (1980). Axenic tissue cultures from the sporophytes of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 16: 475-477.
Gayral, P. & Cosson, J. (1973). Exposé synoptique des données biologiques sur la laminaria digitée Laminaria digitata. FAO Fish. Synops. 89: .
Gomez, I. & Lüning, K. (2001). Constant short-day treatment of outdoor-cultivated Laminaria digitata prevents summer drop in growth rate. European Journal of Phycology 36: 391-396.
Gruber, A., Roleda, M.Y., Bartsch, I., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. (2011). Sporogenesis under ultraviolet radiation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) reveals protection of photosensitive meiospores within soral tissue: physiological and anatomical evidence. Journal of Phycology 47(3): 603-614.
Gunnarsson, K. (1991). Populations de Laminaria hyperborea et Laminaria digitata (Phéophycées) dans la Baie de Breidifjördur, Islande. Journal of the Marine Institue Reykjavik 12: 148.
Hagen Rødde, R. S., Østgaard, K. & Larsen, B. A. (1993). Mannuronan C-5 epimerase activity in protoplasts of Laminaria digitata. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 577-581.
Hagen Rødde, R.S. & Larsen, B. (1997). Protoplasts of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) - Cultivation and Biosynthesis of Alginate. Botanica Marina 40: 391-395.
Hagen Rødde, R.S., Østgaard, K. & Larsen, B. (1997). Chemical composition of protoplasts of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 40: 385-390.
Haug, A. & Jensen, A. (1956). Seasonal variation in chemical composition of Laminaria digitata from different parts of the Norwegian Coast. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 2: 10-15.
Hellebust, J.A. & Haug, A. (1972). In situ studies on alginic acid synthesis and other aspects of the metabolism of Laminaria digitata. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 177-184.
Hellebust, J.A. & Haug, A. (1972). Photosynthesis, translocation, and alginic acid synthesis in Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 169-176.
Indergaard, M. & Jensen, A. (1981). Nitrate and phosphate uptake in small populations of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 411-417.
Indergaard, M. & Skjåk-Braek, G. (1987). Characteristics of alginate from Laminaria digitata cultivated in a high-phosphate enviornment. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 541-549.
Jensen, A. & Haug, A. (1952). Fargereaksjon til adskillelse av Stortare (Laminaria cloustonii) og Fingertare (Laminaria digitata). Tidsskr. Kjemi, Bergvesen oc Metallurgi 8: 138-139.
Jensen, A. (1956). Preliminary investigations of the carbohydrates of Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus. Reports of the Norwegian Institute of Seaweed Research No. 10: .
Jordan, P., Kloareg, B. & Vilter, H. (1991). Detection of vanadate-dependent bromoperoxidases in protoplasts from the brown algae Laminaria digitata and L. saccharina. Journal of Plant Physiology 137(5): 520-524.
King, R.J. & Schramm, W. (1976). Determination of photosynthetic rates for the marine algae Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata. Marine Biology, Berlin 37: 209-213.
Klenell, M., Snoeijs, P. & Pedersén, M. (2002). The involvement of a membrane H+-ATPase in the blue-light enhancement of photosynthesis in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 38: 1143-1149.
Kregting, L.T., Hepburn, C.D. & Savidge, G. (2015). Seasonal differences in the effects of oscillatory and uni-directional flow on the growth and nitrate-uptake rates of juvenile Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 51(6): 1116-1126.
Kylin, H. (1916). Über die Generationswechsel bei Laminaria digitata. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 10: 551-561.
Le Jolis, A. (1855). Examen des espèces confondues sous le nom de Laminaria digitata auct., suivi de quelques observations sur le genre Laminaria. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg 3: 241-312.
Le Jolis, A. (1856). Examen des espèces confrondues sous le nom de Laminaria digitata, suivi de quelques observations sur le genre Laminaria. Novorum actorum Academie Casareae Leopoldino-Carolinae naturae curiosorum 25: 531-591.
Lubsch, A. & Timmermans, K. (2017). Texture analysis of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) thallus reveals trade-off between tissue tensile strength and toughness along lamina. Botanica Marina 60(2): 229-237.
Lubsch, A. & Timmermans, K.R. (2019). Uptake kinetics and storage capacity of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and corresponding dissolved inorganic nitrate uptake in Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 55(3): 637-650.
Lüning, K., Wagner, A. & Buchholz, C. (2000). Evidence for inhibitors of sporangium formation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) during the season of rapid growth (Note). Journal of Phycology 36: 1129-1134.
Maier, I. & Müller, D.G. (1982). Antheridium fine structure and spermatozoid release in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 21: 1-8, 16 figs.
Maier, I. & Müller, D.G. (1990). Chemotaxis in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). I. Analysis of spermatozoid movement.. J. exp. Bot. 41: 869-876.
Maier, I., Müller, D.G., Schmid, C., Boland, W. & Jaenicke, L. (1988). Pheromone receptor specificity and threshold concentrations for spermatozoid release in Laminaria digitata. Naturwissenschaften 75: 260-263.
Martins, N., Tanttu, H., Pearson, G.A., Serrão, E.A. & Bartsch, I. (2017). Interactions of daylength, temperature and nutrients affect thresholds for life stage transitions in the kelp Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 60(2): 109-121.
Mathieson, A.C., Swan, E.F. & Fralick, R.A. (1972). An abnormal specimen of Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux. Rhodora 74: 127-130.
Mikelstad, S. (1968). Ion-exchange properties of brown algae. I. Determination of ratio mechanism for calcium-hydrogen ion-exchange for particles for Laminaria hyperbora and Laminaria digitata. J. Appl. Chem. 18: 30-36.
Molis, M., Enge, A. & Karsten, U. (2010). Grazing impact of, and indirect interactions between mesograzers associated with kelp (Laminaria digitata. Journal of Phycology 46(1): 76-84.
Moss, B. (1977). Attachment of the holdfasts of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) Lamour. British Phycological Journal 12: 121.
Moulin, P., Crépineau, F., Kloareg, B. & Boyen, C. (1999). Isolation and characterization of six cDNAs involved in carbon metabolism in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 35: 1237-1245.
Müller, D.G., Gassmann, G. & Lüning, K. (1979). Isolation of spermatozoid-releasing and -attracting substance from female gametophytes of Laminaria digitata. Nature, London 279: 430-431.
Nitschke, U., Walsh, P., McDaid, J. & Stengel, D.B. (2018). Variability in iodine in temperate seaweeds and iodine accumulation kinetics of Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata> (Phaeophyceae, Ochrophyta). Journal of Phycology 54(1): 114-125.
Pérez, R. (1969). Croissance de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux etudiée sur trois années consécutives. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 329-344.
Pedersén, M. (1983). Ultrastructural localization of bromine and iodine in the stipes of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) Lamour., Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl.. Botanica Marina 26: 113-118.
Penot, M. & Videau, C. (1975). Adsorption du 86Rb et du 99Mo par deux algues marines: Le Laminaria digitata et le Fucus serratus. Zeits. Pflanzenphysiol. 76: 285-293.
Perez, R. (1969). Etude biometrique d'une population de Laminaria digitata Lamouroux de l'etage infralittoral profond. I. -Résultats relatifs aux dimensions des thalles. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pêches marit. 33: 117-135.
Pérez, R. (1969). Le repeuplement des champs de Laminaria digitata. Influence comparée de la coupe et de l'arrachage. Science et Peche : .
Printz, H. (1962). Phykochronologische Untersuchungen in Assoziationen von Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamour. f. stenophylla (Kütz.) Harv. an der norwegischen Westküste. Arch. für. Mikrobiol. 42: 64-73.
Rodrigues, M.A., Pereira dos Santos, C., Yoneshigue Valentin, Y., Strbac, D. & Hall, D.O. (2000). Photosynthetic light-response curves and photoinhibition of the deep-water Laminaria abyssalis and the intertidal Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 36: 97-106.
Rodrigues, M.A., Pereira dos Santos, C., Young, A.J., Strbac, D. & Hall, D.O. (2002). A smaller and impaired xanthophyll cycle makes the deep sea macroalgae Laminaria abyssalis (Phaeophyceae) highly sensitive to daylight when compared with shallow water Laminaria digitata. Journal of Phycology 38: 939-947.
Roeder, V., Collén, J., Rousvoal, S., Corre, E., Leblanc, C. & Boyen, C. (2005). Identification of stress gene transcripts in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) protoplast cultures by expressed sequence tag analysis. Journal of Phycology 41: 1227-1235.
Russell, G. (1983). Formation of an ectocaroid epiflora on blades of Laminaria digitata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11: 181-187.
Schaffelke, B. & Lüning, K. (1994). A circannual rhythm controls seasonal growth in the kelps Laminaria hyperborea and L. digitata from Helgoland (North Sea). European Journal of Phycology 29: 49-56, 8 figs.
Seoane-Camba, J. (1965). Las Laminarias de España, su distribución y el problema de Laminaria digitata Lamour. V Reunión sobre Productividad y Pesquerías, Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras de Barcelona. 47-55.
Shaw, T.I. (1957). Iodide and the respiration of Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Bulletin 1(5): 18.
Smith, B.D. (1985). Recovery following experimental harvesting of Laminaria longicruris and L. digitata in southwestern Nova Scotia. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 39: 83-101.
Stockton, B. & Evans, L.V. (1979). Characterization of alginates from Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 14: 128.
Sundene, O. (1958). Interfertility between forms of Laminaria digitata. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk 6: 121-128.
Sundene, O. (1962). Growth in the sea of Laminaria digitata sporophytes from culture. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk 9: 5-24.
Sundene, O. (1964). The ecology of Laminaria digitata in Norway in view of transplant experiments. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk 11: 83-107.
Suneson, S. (1971). A bifurcate frond of Laminaria digitata from Sweden. Botaniska Notiser 124: 277-279.
Tonon, T., Rousvoal, S., Roeder, V. & Boyen, C. (2008). Expression profiling of the mannuronan C5-epimerase multigenic family in the brown alga Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) under biotic stress conditions. Journal of Phycology 44: 1250-1256.
Tovey, D.J. & Moss, B.L. (1978). Attachment of the haptera of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) Lamour.. Phycologia 17: 17-22.
Van Went, J.L., Van Aelst, A.C. & Tammes, P.M.L. (1973). Transverse connections between cortex and translocating medulla in Laminaria digitata. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 22: 77-78.
Vauchel, P., Arhaliass, A., Legrand, J., Kaas, R. & Baron, R. (2008). Decrease in dynamic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginate from Laminaria Digitata during alkaline extraction . Journal of Phycology 44: 515-517.
Young, E.B., Dring, M.J. & Berges, J.A. (2007). Distinct patterns of nitrate reductase activity in brown algae: light and ammonium sensitivity in Laminaria digitata is absent in Fucus species. Journal of Phycology 43: 1200-1208.

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 November 2019.

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