161,670 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,723 images, 63,671 bibliographic items, 473,639 distributional records.

Zostera marina Linnaeus 1753

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Phylum Tracheophyta
Subphylum Euphyllophytina
Infraphylum Spermatophytae
Superclass Angiospermae
Class Monocots
Subclass Alismatidae
Order Alismatales
Family Zosteraceae
Genus Zostera


click on thumbnail for larger version.

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
intertidal, Ría de Ortigueira, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
subtidal, Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
intertidal, Ría de Ortigueira, Galicia, Spain, 2015. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Zostera marina Linnaeus
upper subtidal with Chorda filum, Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

1  2  3  4  5  6  Next

53 Found - Displaying 1 through 10


Conferva utriculosa Kützing

Zostera marina Linnaeus Zostera marina, drift, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara
© Igancio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es)

Publication details
Zostera marina Linnaeus 1753: 968

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561-1200, [1-30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
 Download PDF

Publication date: 1 May 1753

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Zostera.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Zostera

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), growing in the sea (Stearn 1985).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann 1816
Zostera angustifolia (Hornemann) Reichenbach 1845
Zostera hornemanniana Tutin 1936

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Zostera marina Linnaeus)
English: Eel grass (Duddington 1966).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Created: 03 December 1999 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 29 January 2014 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 17556 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Boese, B.L. & Robbins B.D. (2008). Effects of erosion and macroalgae on intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina in a northeastern Pacific estuary (USA). Botanica Marina 51(4): 247-257.
Boese, B.L., Robbins, B.D. & Thursby, G. (2005). Desiccation is a limiting factor for eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) distribution in the intertidal zone of a northeastern Pacific (USA) estuary. Botanica Marina 48: 274-283.
Borum, J. (1987). Dynamics of epiphyton on eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) leaves: relative roles of algal growth, herbivory, and substratum turnover. Limnology and Oceanography 32: 986-992.
Brauner, J.F. (1975). The seasonality of epiphytic algae on Zostera marina at Beaufort, North Carolina. Nova Hedwigia 26: 125-133.
Choi, T.S., Kim, K.Y., Lee, B.-G. & Lee, J.-S. (2005). Preliminary study on the toxicity and transfer of heavy metals and trybutyltin to seagrass Zostera marina. Algae 20(2): 157-166, 5 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]
Coleman, V.L. & Burkholder, J.M. (1995). Response of microalgal epiphyte communities to nitrate enrichment in an eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadow. Journal of Phycology 31: 36-43, 5 figs, 1 table.
Cullinane, J., O'Mahony, J. & Whelan, P. (1985). Algal epiphytes of subtidal Zostera marina L. on the south coast of Ireland. Cryptogamie, Algologie 6: 239-251.
Curiel, D., Rismondo, A., Scarton, F. & Marzocchi, M. (1997). Flowering of Zostera marina in the Lagoon of Venice (North Adriatic, Italy). Botanica Marina 40: 101-105.
Dawes, C.J. & Guiry, M.D. (1992). Proximate constituents in the sea-grass Zostera marina and Z. noltii: seasonal changes and the effects of blade removal. P.S.Z.N.I.: Marine Ecology 13(4): 307-315.
Dean, T.A., Stekoll, M.S., Jewett, S.C., Smith, R.O. & Hose, J.E. (1998). Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Mar. Pollution Bull. 36 : 463-472.
Den Hartog, C., Vergeer, L.H.T. & Rismondo, A.F. (1996). Occurrence of Labyrinthula zosterae in Zostera marina from Venice Lagoon. Botanica Marina 39: 23-26.
Dennison, W.C. & Alberte, R.S. (1986). Photoadaptation and growth of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) transplants along a depth gradient. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 98: 265-282.
Echavarria-Heras, H., Solana-Arellano, E., Leal-Ramirez, C. & Vizcaino, E.F. (2013). An allometric method fro measuring leaf growth in eelgrass, Zostera marina, using leaf length data. Botanica Marina 56(3): 275-286.
Felger, R. & Moser, M.B. (1973). Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Gulf of California: discovery of its nutritional value by the Seri Indians. Science 181: 355-356.
Fredriksen, S. & Christie, H. (2003). Zostera marina (Angiospermae) and Fucus serratus (Phaeophyceae) as habitat for flora and fauna - seasonal and local variation . Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 357-364.
Gagnon, P.S., Vadas, R.L., Burdick, D.B. & May, B. (1980). Genetic identity of annual and perennial forms of Zostera marina L.. Aquatic Botany 8: 157-162.
García Redondo, V.. (2019). Biodiversidad y conservación de las praderas de Zostera marina en el noroeste ibérico: enfoque biológico y ficológico.. .
García-Redondo, V., Bárbara, I. & Díaz Tapia, P. (2017). Las praderas de Zostera marina L. del Parque Nacional Marítimo Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia y territorios adyacentes: distribución, abundancia y flora asociada. Nova Acta Cientifica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 24: 1-12.
García-Redondo, V., Bárbara, I. & Díaz-Tapia, P. (2019). Zostera marina meadows in the northwestern Spain: distributions, characteristics and anthropogenic pressures. Biodiversity and Conservation 28(7): 1743-1757.
García-Redondo, V., Bárbara, I. & Díaz-Tapia, P. (2019). Biodiversity of epiphytic macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, and Rhodophyta) on leaves of Zostera marina in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula . Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 76(1): e078.
Gonzalez, N. (1976). Contribucion al estudio del epifitismo en Zostera marina L. (Zosteraceae) en la Playa de las Canteras (Gran Canaria). Botanica Macronesica 2: 59-67.
Guidetti, P. (2000). Temporal dynamics of Zostera marina L. off the Lagoon of Grado (Northern adriatic sea, Italy). Botanica Marina 43: 541-546.
Güven, K.C., Saygi, N. & Öztürk, B. (1993). Survey of metal contents of Bosphorus algae, Zostera marina and sediments. Botanica Marina 36: 175-178, 1 fig, 2 tables.
Hamburg, S.P. & Homann, P.S. (1986). Ultilization of growth parameters of ellgrass, Zostera marina, for productivity estimation under laboratory and in situ conditions. Marine Biology, Berlin 93: 299-303.
Harrison, P.G. & Chan, A.T. (1980). Inhibition of the growth of micro-algae and bacteria by extracts of eelgrass (Zostera marina) leaves. Marine Biology, Berlin 61: 21-26.
Harrison, P.G. & Durance, C.D. (1985). Reductions in photosynthetic carbon uptake in epiphytic diatoms by water-soluble extracts of leaves of Zostera marina. Marine Biology, Berlin 90: 117-119.
Harrison, P.G. (1978). Growth of Ulva fenestrata (Chlorophyta) in microcosms rich in Zostera marina (Anthophyta) detritus. Journal of Phycology 14: 100-103.
Harrison, P.G. (1982). Comparative growth of Zostera japonica Aschers. & Graebn. and Z. marina L. under simulated intertidal and subtidal conditions. Aquatic Botany 14: 373-379.
Harrison, P.G. (1982). Spatial and temporal patterns in abundance of two intertidal seagrasses, Zostera americana Den Hartog and Zostera marina L.. Aquatic Botany 12: 305-320.
Heck, K.L., Jr & Orth, R.J. (1980). Structural components of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the lower Chesapeake Bay - decapod crustacea. Estuaries 3: 289-295.
Homziak, J., Fonseca, M.S. & Kenworthy, W.J. (1982). Macrobenthic community structure in a transplanted eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadow. Marine Ecology Progress Series 9: 211-221.
Johnson, M.P., Edwards, M., Bunker, F. & Maggs, C.A. (2005). Algal epiphytes of Zostera marina: variation in assemblage structure from individual leaves to regional scale. Aquatic Botany 82: 12-26.
Jorgensen, N.M. & Bekkby, T. (2013). Historical and present distribution of Zostera marina in the high north (Troms County, northern Norway) - a decline over the last century. Botanica Marina 56(5/6): 425-430.
Kelly, J.R. & Volpe, J. P. (2007). Native eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) survival and growth adjacent to non-native oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Botanica Marina 50(3): 143-150.
Kentula, M.E. & McIntire, C.D. (1986). The autecology and production dynamics of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Netarts Bay, Oregon. Estuaries 9: 188-199.
Kim, D.-H., Park, J.-H. & Shin, J.-A. (2004). A preliminary study on growth and habitat characteristics of Zostera marina (Zosteraceae) in Gamak Bay, Yeosu. Algae 18(1): 49-57, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Kim, K., Kim, J.-h. & Kim, K.Y. (2008). Using a digital echosounder to estimate eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) cover and biomass in Kwangyang Bay. Algae 23(1): 83-90, 5 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]
Kim, K.Y. & Choi, T.S. (2004). Variability in abundance and morphological attributes of Zostera marina L. from the southern coast of Korea. Botanica Marina 47: 287-294, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Kim, T.H., Park, S.R., Kim, Y.K., Kim, J.-H., Kim, S.H., Kim, J.H., Chung, I.K. & Lee, K.S. (2008). Growth dynamics and carbon incorporation of the seagrass, Zostera marina L. in Jindong Bay and Gamak Bay on the southern coast of Korea. Algae 23(3): 241-250, 7 figs, 3 tables. [in Korean]
Lee K.-S., Park, J.-I., Chung, I.K., Kang, D.W. & Huh, S.-H. (2004). Production ecology of the seagrass Zostera marina in Jingdong Bay, Korea. Algae 18(1): 39-47, 10 figs.
Lee, K.S. (2004). Development of indicator for coastal and estuarine eutrophication using morphological characteristics and tissue N content of Eelgrass, Zostera marina. Algae 19(2): 129-137, 10 figs.
Li, W.-T. & Lee, K.-S. (2010). Adaptation success of Zostera marina to a new transplant environment. Algae 25(1): 27-35, 7 figs, 1 table.
Lin, H.-J., Nixon, S.W., Taylor, D.I., Granger, S.L. & Buckley, B.A. (1996). Responses of epiphytes on eelgrass, Zostera marina L., to separate and combined nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment. Aquatic Botany 52(4): 243-258.
Lyngby, J.E. & Brix, H. (1982). Seasonal and environmental variations in cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations n eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Limfjord, Denmark. Aquatic Botany 14: 59-74.
Lynn, M.J. (1936). The scarcity of Zostera marina (slitch, eelgrass or grass-wrack) in Stangford Lough. Irish Naturalists' Journal 6: 107-117.
Markham, J.W. & Munda, I.M. (1977). A find of Zostera marina L. at Helgoland, Germany. Aquatic Botany 3: 91-93.
Mazzella, L. & Alberte, R.S. (1986). Light adaptation and the role of autotrophic epiphytes in primary production of the temperate seagrass, Zostera marina L.. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 100: 165-180.
Mazzella, L., Mauzerall, D., Lyman, H. & Alberte, R.S. (1981). Protoplast isolation and photosynthetic characteristics of Zostera marina L. (Eel Grass). Botanica Marina 24: 285-289.
McConnaughey, T. & McRoy, C.P. (1979). 13C label identifies eelgrass (Zostera marina) carbon in an Alaskan estuarine food web. Marine Biology, Berlin 53: 263-269.
McRoy, C. P. (1970). Standing stocks and other features of eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations on the coast of Alaska. . : [1]+ 40 pp.. [in English]
McRoy, C.P. & Goering, J.J. (1974). Nutrient transfer between the seagrass Zostera marina and its epiphytes. Nature, London 248: 173-174.
McRoy, C.P. (1968). The distribution and biogeography of Zostera marina (Eelgrass) in Alaska. Pacific Science 22: 507-513.
McRoy, C.P. (1970). Standing stocks and other features of eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations on the coast of Alaska. J Fish Res Bd Can 27: 1811-1821.
McRoy, C.P. (1970). The standing stock and ecology of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Masters Abstracts 8: .
Milkova, T., Petkova, R., Christov, R., Popov, S. & Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S. (1995). Comparative study of the chemical composition of Zostera marina L. and Zostera nana Roth from the Black Sea. Botanica Marina 38: 99-101, 3 tables.
Muehlstein, L.K., Porter, D. & Short, F.T. (1988). Labyrinthula sp., a marine slime mold producing the symptoms of wasting disease in eelgrass, Zostera marina. Marine Biology, Berlin 99: 465-472.
Nelson, T.A. (1997). Epiphyte-grazer interactions of Zostera marina (Anthophyta: Monocotyledones): effects of density on community function. Journal of Phycology 33: 743-752, 5 figs, 4 tables.
Nienhuis, P.H. & De Bree, B.H.H. (1980). Production and growth dynamics of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in brackish Lave Grevelingen (The Netherlands). Neth. J. Sea Res. 14: 102-118.
Novaczek, I. (1987). Periodicity of epiphytes on Zostera marina in two embayments of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 1676-1681.
Obando, S. E. I., and Rosas, R. A. (1985). Drift and epiphytic macroalgae associated with Zostera marina L. in San Quintin Bay (B.C., Mexico) during summer-autumn 1982: biomass and taxonomic composition . Cien. Mar. 11(2): 89-104.
Orth, R.J. & Heck, K.L., Jr (1980). Structural components of eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the lower Chesapeake Bay - fishes. Estuaries 3: 278-288.
Orth, R.J. & Moore, K.A. (1983). Seed germination and seedling growth of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic Botany 15: 117-131.
Orth, R.J. & Moore, K.A. (1986). Seasonal and year-to-year variations in the growth of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic Botany 24: 335-341.
Orth, R.J. (1973). Benthic fauna of eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds. Ches. Sci. 14: 258-269.
Park, J.-I. & Lee, K.-S. (2007). Effects of the loess coating on seed germination and seedling growths of the eelgrass, Zostera marina. Algae 22(2): 141-146, 4 figs, 1 table.
Park, J.-I., Kim, Y.-K., Park, S.R., Kim, J.-H., Kim, Y.-S., Kim, J.-B., Lee, P.-Y., Kang, C.-K. & Lee, K.-S. (2005). Selection of optimal transplanting method and time for restoration of Zostera marina habitats. Algae 20(4): 379-388, 5 figs, 5 tables. [in Korean]
Phillips, R.C., McMillan, C. & Bridges, K.W. (1983). Phenology of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., along latitudinal gradients in North America. Aquatic Botany 15: 145-156.
Rigollet, V., Laugier, T., de Casabianca, M.L., Sfriso, A. & Marcomini, A. (1998). Seasonal biomass and nutrient dynamics of Zostera marina L. in two Mediterranean lagoons: Thau (France) and Venice (Italy). Botanica Marina 41: 167-179, 8 figs, 3 tables.
Roberts, M.H., Jr, Orth, R.J. & Moore, K.A. (1984). Growth of Zostera marina L. seedlings under laboratopry conditions of nutrient enrichment. Aquatic Botany 20: 321-328.
Roth, I.G. & Hayasaka, S.S. (1984). Seasonal distribution and partial characterization of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria associated with North Carolina Zostera marina seagrass bed sediment. Botanica Marina 27: 203-210.
Rueda, J.L., Salas, C. & Marina, P. (2008). Seasonal variation in a deep subtidal Zostera marina L. bed in southern Spain (western Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 51: 92-102.
Saunders, J.E., Attrill, M.J., Shaw, S.M. & Rowden, A.A. (2003). Spatial variability in the epiphytic algal assemblages of Zostera marina seagrass beds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 249: 107-115.
Seymour, N.R., Miller, A.G. & Garbary, D.J. (2002). Decline of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) associated with a collapse of eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a Nova Scotia estuary. Helgoland Marine Research 56: 198-202.
Short, F.T. & McRoy, C.P. (1984). Nitrogen uptake by leaves and roots of the seagrass Zostera marina L.. Botanica Marina 27: 547-555.
Short, F.T. (1983). The seagrass, Zostera marina L.: plant morphology and bed structure in relation to sediment ammonium in Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Aquatic Botany 16: 149-161.
Sieburth, J.M. & Thomas, C.D. (1973). Fouling on eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Journal of Phycology 9: 46-50.
Silberhorn, G.M., Orth, R.J. & Moore, K.A. (1983). Anthesis and seed production in Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) from the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic Botany 15: 133-144.
Smith, G.W., Hayasaka, S.S. & Thayer, G.W. (1984). Ammonification of amino acids by the rhizoplane microflora of Zostera marina L. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. Botanica Marina 26: 23-27.
Thomas, M.L.H. & Duffy, J.R. (1968). Butoxyethanol ester of 2,4-D in the control of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and its effects on oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) and other benthos. 22nd Annual Northeastern Weed Control Conference : 185-194.
Thorne-Miller, B. & Harlin, M.M. (1984). The production of Zostera marina L. and other submerged macrophytes in a coastal lagoon in Rhode Island, U.S.A.. Botanica Marina 27: 539-546.
Touchette, B.W. & Burkholder, J.M. (2002). Seasonal variations in carbon and nitrogen constituents in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as influenced by increased temperature and water-column nitrate. Botanica Marina 45: 23-34.
Vichkovitten,T., Holmer, M., Frederiksen, M.S. (2007). Spatial and temporal changes in non-structural carbohydrate reserves in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Danish coastal waters. Botanica Marina 50(2): 75-87.
Watanabe, M., Nakaoka, M. & Mukai, H. (2005). Seasonal variation in vegetative growth and production of the endemic Japanese seagrass Zostera asiatica: a comparison with sympatric Zostera marina. Botanica Marina 48: 266-273.
Wong, M.C., Bravo, M.A. & Dowd, M. (2013). Ecological dynamics of Zostera marina (eelgrass) in three adjacent bays in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 56(5/6): 413-424.
Young, D., Clinton, P., Specht, D. & Collura, T.C.M. (2015). Comparison of non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica and native eelgrass (Zostera marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014. Botanica Marina 58(4): 239-250.
Young, D., Clinton, P., Specht, D., Collura, T.C.M. & Lee II, H. (2012). Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries on the eastern North Pacific coast. Botanica Marina 55(3): 229-240.
Zhao, J-S., Liu, Y.-S., Zhang, P.-D., Li, W.-T. & Fang, C. (2016). Assessment of the establishment success of eelgrass Zostera marina (Alismatales: Zosteraceae) from seeds in a cost-effective seed protection method: implications for large-scale restoration. 59(4): 259-266.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21517

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 June 2021.

SITE © 1996 - 2021 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio