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Chara globularis Thuiller 1799

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Charophyceae
Order Charales
Family Characeae
Tribe Chareae
Genus Chara

Pictures

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Chara globularis Thuiller
Showing isostichous cortex. Upton Lake South, Northampton, UK. Collected by Natalie Hueber,. 01 Aug 2005. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara globularis Thuiller
Minute spine cell. Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK.. 01 Feb 2009. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara globularis Thuiller
Upton Lake South, Northampton, UK.Collected by Natalie Hueber,. 01 Jun 2005. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Chara globularis Thuiller
08 Sep 2010. Anders Langangen (langangen@hotmail.com). © Anders Langangen (langangen@hotmail.com).

Chara globularis Thuiller
08 Sep 2010. Anders Langangen (langangen@hotmail.com). © Anders Langangen (langangen@hotmail.com).

 

Gracilaria prolifera Reinsch

Chara globularis Thuiller Showing isostichous cortex. Upton Lake South, Northampton, UK. Collected by Natalie Hueber,
© C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Chara globularis Thuiller 1799: 472

Published in: Thuillier, J.L. (Ann VII [1799]). Flore des environs de Paris, ou, Distribution méthodique des plantes qui y croissent naturellement, Faite d'après le systême de Linnée: avec le nom et la description de chacune et latin et in françoise; l'indications de leur lieu natal, de leur durée, du temps de leur florasion, de la coluleur de leurs fleurs, et al citation de Auteurs qui les ont le mieux décrites ou en ont donées les meilleures figures. Nouvelle édition: revuew corrigée et considérablement augumentée [éd. 2]. pp. 1-595. Paris: Chez l'Auteur et H.L. Perronneau.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Chara is Chara vulgaris Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Chara Section Grovesia

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Chara pulchella var. globularis (Thuillier) Wallroth 1833

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Chara capillacea Thuillier 1799
Chara fragilis Desvaux 1810
Chara pulchella Wallroth 1815
Chara diffusa S.Liljeblad 1816
Chara viridis C.Hartman 1820
Chara hirta F.Meyen 1827
Chara foliolata C.J.Hartman 1832
Chara pulchella var. capillacea (Thuillier) Wallroth 1833
Chara fragilis var. meridionalis A.Braun 1834
Chara fragilis var. capillacea (Thuillier) Miquel 1840
Chara fragilis var. elongata E.Cosson & S.H.Germain 1845
Chara capillacea Hartman 1846
Chara fragilis var. longibracteata Rabenhorst 1846
Chara fulcrata U.Ganterer 1847
Chara fragilis var. fulcrata (Ganterer) A.Brebisson 1859
Chara fragilis var. aegyptica A.Braun nom.nudum 1867
Chara trichophylla Kützing 1881
Chara fragilis var. subverrucosa A.Braun 1882
Chara fragilis f. brevibracteata A.Braun 1882
Chara fragilis f. major A.Braun 1882
Chara fragilis f. tenuifolia A.Braun 1882
Chara fragilis var. [subverrucosa] f. platensis C.Spegazzini 1883
Chara fragilis var. basilaris Nordstedt 1888
Chara fragilis f. laxa Migula 1897
Chara fragilis f. heterophylla W.Migula 1897
Chara fragilis f. nitelloides W.Migula 1897
Chara fragilis f. migulae J.Vilhelm 1912
Chara conniventi-fragilis F.Hy 1913
Chara fragilis f. macrophylla J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. tenuis J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. brevifolia J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. capitellata J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. macrostephana J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. pseudacantha J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. mollis J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. gracilior J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. pusilla J.Vilhelm 1923
Chara fragilis f. crassior J.Vilhelm 1928
Chara fragilis f. flexiformis J.Vilhelm 1928
Chara fragilis f. insignis N.Filarszky 1931
Chara globularis var. capillacea (Thuillier) J.S.Zaneveld 1940
Chara globularis f. seminudifolia H.Kasaki 1957
Chara globularis var. hupehensis C.C.Jao & Y.Y.Lee 1974
Chara globularis var. beijingensis W.T.Su & Z.X.Wang 1990
Chara globularis f. inflata Y.J.Ling, G.Z.Deng & Z.Li 1990
Chara leptospora H.Sakayama 2009

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Common names

(as Chara globularis Thuiller)
Swedish: Skörsträfse (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Description
Plants are from 5 to 50 cm long, commonly green in colour, but encrusted and grey in calcareous waters. The axis is up to 500 m in diameter and in some cases up to 800 m in diameter. The internodes are as long as, or longer than the branchlets. The branchlets are 6-9, each with 8-12 segments. The stem cortex is triplostichous, isostichous. The spine cells are lacking or papillous. The stipulodes in both rows are very short or papillous. The plant is monoecious. The gametangia are conjoined at the three lowest branchlet nodes. The oogonia are solitary and up to 1.2 mm long. The oospores are black. The antheridium is up to 500 m in diameter.

Habitat
Chara globularis is found both in freshwater and brackish water. In freshwater it is found in lakes and rivers, oligotrophic as well as eutrophic water. In calcareous lakes like Chara lakes the species ca be heavily encrusted. It grows on sand, clay, mud or marl bottom. It is usually found in shallow water, down to 4 m depth. In brackish water it is common in the Swedish part of the Baltic Sea. Chara globularis is commonly annual but perennial forms are found on deeper water. The species is fertile from May to September, in the Baltic Sea from July. It is often richly fertile and often full of ripe, black oospores which are found from June to October. Distribution:

Type information
Type locality: "Habitat in aquis pigris" [environs of Paris, France] (Thuillier 1799: 472). Lectotype: PC 0074031 (epitype) Thuillier (no location spcified); no date; L L0054649 (Sakayama et al. 2009: 926). Notes: Epitype designated by Sakayama et al. (2009: 926): PC 9974031 (no date, Desvaux?).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Arbeitsgruppe Armleuchteralgen Deutschland (Becker, R., Blindow, I., Doege, A., Franke, T., Gregor, T., Hamann, U., Jäger, D., Jorda, C., Kabus, T., Korsch, H., Korte, E., Kusber, W.-H., Pätzold, Raabe, U., Schubert, H., Teppke, M., van der Weyer K., Wolff, P.) (2015 '2016'). Beschreibung der Characeen-Arten Deutschlands. In: Armleuchteralgen. Die Characeen Deutschlands. (Arbeitsgruppe Characeen Deutschlands Lehrstuhl für Ökologie der Universität Rostock Eds), pp. 209-572. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Auderset, J.D. & Rey-Boissezon, A. (2013). Les Characées de Genève et environs. Distribution et Ecologie. Rapport projet de recherche DGNP-UNIGE Groupe d’Ecologie aqua-tique, Institut Forel et Institut des Sciences l’Environnement, Université de Genève. pp. [i-vii], 1-95, numerous photographs, figures and maps. Genève: Direction Générale de la Nature et du Paysage Rue des Battoirs 7 1205 Genève.

Bhatagnar, S.K. (1989). Cytological perspectives of Charophyta I. Chara globularis complex. Phykos 28: 156-165.

Borisova, O.V. (2015 '2014'). Charales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 454-465. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Caisová, L. & Gabka, M. (2009). Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution. Fottea, Olomouc 9(1): 1-43.

Debski, B. (1899). Weitere beobachtungen an Chara fragilis Desv.. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 32: 635-670.

Groves, J. & Bullock-Webster, G.R. (1919). Chara fragilis and C. delicatula. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 57: 69.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Langangen, A. (2007). Charophytes of the Nordic countries. pp. [1]-102, many figs and maps. Oslo: Saeculum ANS.

Muller, S, D., Rhazi, L. & Soulie-Märsche, I. (2017). Diversity and distribution of Characeae in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). Crytogamie Algologie 38(3): 201-251.

Sakayama, H., Kasai, F., Nozaki, H., Watanabe, M.M., Kawachi, M. Shigyo, M., Nishihiro, J., Washitani, I., Krienitz, L. & Ito, M. (2009). Taxonomic reexamination of Chara globularis (Charales, Charophyceae) from Japan based on oospore morphology and rbcL gene sequences, and the description of C. leptospora sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 45(4): 917-927.

Schneider, S.C., Rodrigues, A., Moe, T.F. & Ballot, A. (2015). DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach. Journal of Phycology 51(2): 367-380.

Schubert, H & Blindow, I. (2004). Charophytes of the Baltic Sea. . Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft.

Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. [1]-120, incl. 34 pls. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.

Watterlot, A. & Prey, T. (2016). Inventaire des Characées sur le territoire picard (Aisne, Oise et Somme): Évaluation patrimoniale. Version No. 2, décembre 2016. pp. [1]-30, Annexe, 31-56 [Maps]. Bailleul: Centre régional de phytosociologie. Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul.

Zaneveld, J.S. (1941). The Charophyta of Malaysia and adjacent countries. Blumea 4: 1-223, 21 figs.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 11 May 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5840 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Bhatagnar, S.K. (1989). Cytological perspectives of Charophyta I. Chara globularis complex. Phykos 28: 156-165.
Boszke, P. & Bociag, K. (2010). Preliminary analysis of the morphology and morphometry of Chara globularis Thuillier (Charophyta) oospores from Poland. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 221-228.
Pentecost, A. (1984). The growth of Chara globularis and its relationship to calcium carbonate deposition in Malham Tarn. Field Studies 6: 53-58.
Proctor, V.W. (1971). Chara globularis Thuillier (= C. fragilis Desvaux): Breeding patterns within a cosmopolitan complex. Limnology and Oceanography 16(2): 422-436.
Sakayama, H., Kasai, F., Nozaki, H., Watanabe, M.M., Kawachi, M. Shigyo, M., Nishihiro, J., Washitani, I., Krienitz, L. & Ito, M. (2009). Taxonomic reexamination of Chara globularis (Charales, Charophyceae) from Japan based on oospore morphology and rbcL gene sequences, and the description of C. leptospora sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 45(4): 917-927.
Zhang, W. (1989). Identification of a cytokinin in the green alga Chara globularis. Phytochemistry 28: 337-338.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 01 October 2020.

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