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Phacus orbicularis Hübner 1886

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Eozoa
Infrakingdom Infrakingdom Euglenozoa
Phylum Euglenozoa
Infraphylum Dipilida
Class Euglenophyceae
Subclass Euglenophycidae
Order Euglenida
Family Phacidae
Genus Phacus

Pictures

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Phacus orbicularis Hübner
Poland, Mąkolno village, pond, 1 May 2019. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

Phacus orbicularis Hübner
Strain ACOI 2996, Portugal, Barragem do Azibo. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

Phacus orbicularis Hübner
Poland, Klewiny village, farm pond, 10 May 2020. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

Phacus orbicularis Hübner
Strain ACOI 614, Sintra, Parque de Monserrate, water tank. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

 

Pinnularia maior var. pulchella C.S.Boyer

Phacus orbicularis Hübner Strain ACOI 2996, Portugal, Barragem do Azibo
© Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl)

Publication details
Phacus orbicularis Hübner 1886: 5, fig. 1

Published in: Hübner, E.F.W. (1886). Euglenaceen-Flora von Stralsund. Programm des Realgymnasiums Stralsund 1886: 1-20, 1 pl..
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Phacus is Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: Germany: Vogelwiese, Stralsund (Index Nominum Algarum). Lectotype: fig. 1 in Hübner, 1886 (designated by Kosmala et al., 2007: 1077): Figs 1, h, i, and n (epitype) Epitype in Herbarium of the Department of Plant Systematic and Geography at Warsaw Univ. Permanently preserved material of strain ACOI 2955 (epitype) (Kosmala et al. 2007: 1077). Notes: The culture (ACOI 2955) from which the epitype was described, deposited in the Algae Culture Collection of Dept. of Bot., Univ. of Coimbra, Portugal. Collector: Hübner (INA). [Cytoplasmic SSU rRNA signature sequences in Kim & Shin (2014: 956)]. Lukomska-Kowalczyk et al., 2020 note that the epitypification statement published in Kosmala et al. 2007 (P. 1077) does not include the phrase "designated here". They designate the epitype: Kosmala et al. 2007, fig. 1h in their 2020 publication. GenBank DQ397671.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), orbicular (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Phacus orbicularis var. undulatus Skvortsov 1917
Phacus pleuronectes var. australis Playfair 1921
Phacus platalea Drezepolski 1925
Phacus ovoidea Roll 1925
Phacus zingeri Roll 1925
Phacus orbicularis var. caudatus Skvortsov 1928
Phacus pleuronectes var. marginatus Skvortsov 1928
Phacus heimii M.Lefèvre 1933
Phacus orbicularis var. cingeri (Roll) Svirenko 1938
Phacus undulatus (Skvortsov) Pochmann 1942
Phacus thrombus Pochmann 1942
Phacus orbicularis f. communis Popova 1947
Phacus orbicularis f. cingeri (Roll) Safonova 1976
Phacus orbicularis f. cingeri (Roll) Safonova 1976

Habitat notes
Rivers and small water bodies; recorded as indicator of moderately to strongly polluted water (Valadez et al. 2010, citing various sources). - (5 Jan 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Description
Emended diagnosis (Kosmala et al., 2007: 1077). Emend. Kim & Shin (2014: 956).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Araujo, G.J.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2018). Flora ficológica do Estado de São Paulo. Vol. 6. Euglenophyceae. pp. [i]-viii, [1]-203, plus 306 figs. São Paulo: TRiMa: FAPESP.

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Kasiborski, B.A., Bennett, M.S. & Linton, E.W. (2016). The chloroplast genome of Phacus orbicularis (Euglenophyceae): an initial datum point for the Phacaceae. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 404-411.

Kim, J.I. & Shin, W. (2014). Molecular phylogeny and cryptic diversity of the genus Phacus (Phacaceae, Euglenophycea) and the description of seven new species. Journal of Phycology 50(5): 948-959.

Kosmala, S., Bereza, M., Milanowski, R., Kwiatowski, J. & Zakrys, B. (2007). Morphological and molecular examination of relationships and epiphyte establishment of Phacus pleuronectes, Phacus orbicularis, and Phacus hamelii. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1071-1082.

Lemmermann, E. (1913). Flagellatae II. Eugleninae. In: Die Süsswasserflora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Heft 2. (Pascher, A. & Lemmermann, E. Eds), pp. 115-174. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Lukomska-Kowalczyk, M., Fells, A., Chaber, K., Milanowski, R. & Zakrys, B. (2020). Taxon-rich phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Phacus (Euglenida) based on morphological and molecular data. Journal of Phycology 56(5): 1135-1156.

Milanowski, R., Kosmala, S., Zakrys, B. & Kwiatowski, J. (2006). Phylogeny of photosynthetic euglenophytes based on combined chloroplast and cytoplasmic SSU rDNA sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 42: 721-730.

Monfils, A.K., Triemer, R.E. & Bellairs, E.F. (2011). Characterization of paramylon morphological diversity in photosynthetic euglenoids (Euglenales, Euglenophytaa). Phycologia 50(2): 156-169.

Nudelman, M.A., Rossi, M.S., Conforti, V. & Triemer, R.E. (2003). Phylogeny of Euglenophyceae based on small subunit rDNA sequences: taxonomic implications. Journal of Phycology 39: 226-235.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Starmach, K. (1983). Euglenophyta - Eugleniny Vol. 3 Flora slodkowodna polski [Euglenophyta Volume 3 Freshwater flora of Poland]. pp. [1]-594. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. [in Polish]

Tariq-Ali, S., Masud-ul-Hasan & Shameel, M. (2005). Taxonomic study of the genus Phacus Dujardin (Euglenophyta) from Lahore and Sialkot districts of Pakistan. Int. J. Phycol. Phycochem. 1(2): 173-176.

Triemer, R.E., Linton, E., Shin, W., Nudelman, A., Monfils, A., Bennett, M. & Brosnan, S. (2006). Phylogeny of the Euglenales based upon combined SSU and rDNA sequence comparisons and description of Discoplastis gen. nov. (Euglenophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 731-740.

Wołowski, K, & Hindák, F. (2005). Atlas of Euglenophytes. pp. [1]-136, 417 figs. Cracow: VEDA Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Wołowski, K. (1998). Taxonomic and environmental studies on euglenophytes of the Kraków-Czestochowa Upland (Southern Poland). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Supplementum 6: 1-192, 29 pls.

Wołowski, K., Poniewozik, M. & Walne, P.L. (2013). Pigmented euglenophytes of the genera Euglena, Euglenaria, Lepocinclis, Phacus and Monomorphina from the southeastern United States. Polish Botanical Journal 58(2): 659-685.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 December 2020 by G.M. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 2344 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Kasiborski, B.A., Bennett, M.S. & Linton, E.W. (2016). The chloroplast genome of Phacus orbicularis (Euglenophyceae): an initial datum point for the Phacaceae. Journal of Phycology 52(3): 404-411.
Kosmala, S., Bereza, M., Milanowski, R., Kwiatowski, J. & Zakrys, B. (2007). Morphological and molecular examination of relationships and epiphyte establishment of Phacus pleuronectes, Phacus orbicularis, and Phacus hamelii. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1071-1082.

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Cite this record as:
G.M. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 September 2021.

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