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Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt 1899

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Bacillariophyta
Subphylum Bacillariophytina
Class Bacillariophyceae
Subclass Bacillariophycidae
Order Cymbellales
Family Cymbellaceae
Genus Didymosphenia


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Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Small stream, Utah, USA. 04 Apr 2017. Sergei Shalygin. © Creative commons.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Winthrop, Washington, US.... 15 Jan 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Winthrop, Washington, USA; Methow River, Lugols, 1000x DIC. 15 Jan 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
600x __Dim. 43 x 117 µm. 02 Apr 2011. Robert Lavigne. © Robert Lavigne. (MicroscopyView.com).

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Winthrop, Washington, USA; Methow River, 400x, DIC. 19 Jan 2010. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Winthrop, Washington, USA; Methow River, Audubon Trail bridge, 400x DIC. 20 Jan 2009. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Mararoa River, Southland, New Zealand; dead dry plants. © Free of copyright.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt
Scanning electron micrograph of the silica cell wall. The raphe is composed of the two slits that run along the apical axis of the cell. The cell secretes mucopolysaccarides through the raphe .. Sarah Sapulding. © Public domain.


Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt Winthrop, Washington, USA; Methow River, Audubon Trail bridge, 400x DIC
© Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net)

Publication details
Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Mart.Schmidt in A.W.F.Schmidt 1899: pl. 214: figs 7-10

Published in: Schmidt, A.[W.F.] (1899). Atlas der Diatomaceen-kunde. Series V: Heft 54 . pp. pls 213-216 [M. Schmidt]. Leipzig: O.R. Reisland .
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Didymosphenia.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Echinella geminata Lyngbye

Type information
in ins. Faer. ad saxa rivulorum subalpest. prope Argehospital et rupem Skielling [Faroe Islands] (Lyngbye 1819: 219).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Dendrella geminata (Lyngbye) Bory
Echinella geminata Lyngbye 1819
Styllaria geminata (Lyngbye) Bory 1822
Gomphonema geminatum (Lyngbye) C.Agardh 1824
Lyngbyea pulvinata var. geminata (Lyngbye) Sommerfelt 1826

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gomphonema vulgare Brébisson 1838

Nomenclatural notes
Seemingly originally first introduced without a description, but validated by analytical figures (see Art. 38.7 "For the purpose of Art. 38.5, prior to 1 January 1908, an illustration with analysis (see Art. 38.9 and 38.10) is acceptable in place of a written description or diagnosis."). - (29 Feb 2016) - M.D. Guiry

Conservational notes
This species has been introduced into New Zealand, where it forms large mats on the bottom of streams, rivers and occasional lake edges where there is a wave action. Thick growths can adversely affect freshwater fish, plant and invertebrate species by reducing the number of suitable habitats. It has no human health risk. It has been confused with a number of New Zealand native alga. The main difference between it and native species is the way it feels. Native alga feels slimy and will break apart in your fingers, whereas didymo is strong and feels like wet cotton wool. Currently, there is no 'cure' for didymo, and preventing further spread relies on freshwater users cleaning aquatic equipment between use in different waterways regardless of location and perceived didymo risk. A controlled area notice, requiring cleaning of aquatic equipment when moving from the South Island to the North Island is in force. Other measures may be put in place by long-term management partners to help protect specific high-value sites, such as Fiordland National Park (Department of Conservation and Fish and Game) and Te Waikoropupu Springs in Nelson (Department of Conservation). (Extracted from http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/didymo). - (16 Dec 2007) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bąk, M., Witkowski, A., Zelazna-Wieczorek, J., Wojtal, A.Z., Szczepocka , E., Szulc, A. & Szulc, B. (2012). Klucz do oznaczania okrzemek w fitobentosie na potrzeby oceny stanu ekologicznego wód powierzchniowych w Polsce Biblioteka Monitoringu Srodowiska. pp. 1-452. Warszawa [Warsaw]: Glowny Inspektorat Ochrony Srodowiska.

Dawson, P.A. (1973). The morphology of the siliceous components of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngb.) M. Schm.. British Phycological Journal 8: 65-78, 40 figs.

Hofmann, G., Werum, M. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2013). Diatomeen im Süßwasser—Benthos von Mitteleuropa. Bestimmungsflora Kieselalgen für die ökologische Praxis. Über 700 der häufigsten Arten und ihre Ökologie. pp. [1]-908, 133 pls. Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Hustedt, F. (1930). Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae) Zweite Auflage. In: Die Süsswasser-Flora Mitteleuropas. Heft 10. (Pascher, A. Eds), pp. [i]-vii, [1]-466. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Kermarrec, L., Ector, L., Bouchez, A., Rimet, F. & Hoffmann, L. (2011). A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Cymbellales based on 18S rDNA gene sequencing . Diatom Research 26(3): 305-315.

Khan-Bureau, D.A., Morales, E.A., Ector, L., Beauchene, M.S. & Lewis, L.A. (2016). Characterization of a new species in the genus Didymosphenia and of Cymbella janischii (Bacillariophyta) from Connecticutt, USA. European Journal of Phycology 51(2): 203-216.

Krammer, K. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (1986). Bacillariophyceae 1 Teil: Naviculaceae. In: Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Begründet von A. Pascher. Herausgegeben von. H. Ettl, J. Gerloff, H. Heynig & D. Mollenhauer. Band 2/1. pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-876, 206 pls with 2976 figures. Stuttgart & New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Kulikovskiy, M., Glushchenko, A.M., Kuznetsova, I.V. & Genkal, S.I. (2016). [Identification book of diatoms from Russia]. pp. [1]-804, 165 pls. Yaroslavl: Filigran. [in Russian]

Lange-Bertalot, H., Hofmann, G., Werum, M. & Cantonati, M. (2017). Freshwater benthic diatoms of Central Europe: over 800 common species used in ecological assessments. English edition with updated taxonomy and added species (Cantonati, M. et al. eds). pp. [1]-942, 135 pls. Schmitten-Oberreifenberg: Koeltz Botanical Books.

Metzeltin, D. & Lange-Bertalot, H. (2014). The genus Didymosphenia M. Schmidt. A critical evaluation of established and description of 11 new taxa. Iconographia Diatomologica 25: [1]-293, 126 pls.

Proschkina-Lavrenko, A.I. [Ed.] (1950). Diatomovyi Analiz, Kniga 3. Opredelitel' iskopaemykh i sovremennykh diatomik vodoroslei Poriadok Pennales. Vol. 3 (1). pp. [1]-398, 117 pls. Kiev: Botanicheskii Institut im V.L. Komarova Akademii Nauk S.S.S.R. Gosudarstvennoe Izdatelystvo Geologicheskoi Literatury. [in Russian]

Sims, P.A. (ed.) (1996). An atlas of British diatoms arranged by B. Hartley based on illustrations by H.G. Barber and J.R. Carter. pp. [2], 1-601, incl. 290 pls. Bristol: Biopress Ltd.

Snoeijs, P. & Balashova, N. (1998). Intercalibration and distribution of diatom species in the Baltic Sea The Baltic Marine Biologists Publication No. 16e. Vol. 5 pp. 1-144, 1 fig, 6 tables, 101 plates. Uppsala: Opulus Press.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 15 November 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 18534 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Antoine, S.E. & Benson-Evans, K. (1984). Morphological variation in six populations of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt of Great Britain. Nova Hedwigia 40: 141-156.
Antoine, S.E. & Benson-Evans, K. (1983). Polymorphism and size variation in Didymosphenia geminata from Great Britain. British Phycological Journal 18: 199-200.
Beamud, S.G., Baffico, G., Reid, B., Torres, R., Gonzalez-Polo, M., Pedrozo, F. & Diaz, M. (2016). Photosynthetic performance associated with phosphorus availability in mats of Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) from Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). Phycologia 55(2): 118-125.
Bergey, E.A., Desianti, N. & Cooper, J.T. (2017). Characterization of the diatom flora in the Lower Mountain Fork (Oklahoma, USA), a novel regulated river with a disjunct population of the diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyta). European Journal of Phycology 52(2): 225-237.
Bishop, I.W. & Spaulding, S.A. (2017). Life cycle size dynamics in Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) . Journal of Phycology 53(3): 652-663.
Blanco, S. & Ector, L. (2009). Distribution, ecology and nuisance effects of the freshwater invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M.Schmidt: a literature review. Nova Hedwigia 88: 347-422.
Dawson, P.A. (1973). The morphology of the siliceous components of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngb.) M. Schm.. British Phycological Journal 8: 65-78, 40 figs.
Kawecka, B. & Sanecki, J. (2003). Didymosphenia geminata in running waters of southern Poland - symptoms of change in water quality?. Hydrobiologia 495: 193-201.
Kilroy, C. & Bothwell, M. (2011). Environmental control of stalk length in the bloom-forming, freshwater benthic diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47(5): 981-989.
Kilroy, C. (2004). A new alien diatom, Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt: its biology, distribution, effects and potential risks for New Zealand fresh waters. pp. 1-40. Christchurch: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd. Report No.: NIWA Client Report: CHC2004-128.
Kuhajek, J.M., Lemoine, M., Kilroy, C., Cary, S.C., Gerbeaux, P. & Wood, S.A. (2014). Laboratory study of the survival and attachment of Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae) in water sourced from rivers throughout New Zealand. Phycologia 53(1): 1-9.
Sanmiguel, A. Blanco, S., Álvarez-Blanco, I., Cejudo-Figueiras, C., Escudero, A., Pérez, M.E., Noyón, G. & Bécares, E. (2016). Recovery of the algae and macroinvertebrate benthic community after Didymosphenia geminata mass growths in Spanish rivers. Biological Invasions 18(5): 1467-1484.
Sherbot, D.M.J. & Bothwell, M.L. . (1993). Didymosphenia geminata (Gomphonemaceae). A review of the ecology of D. geminata and the physicochemical characteristics of endemic catchments on Vancouver Island. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: National Hydrology Research Institute, Environment Canada. Report No.: NHRI Contribution No. 93005.
Spaulding, S.A. & Elwell, L. (2007). Increase in nuisance blooms and geographic expansion of the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 1425: 1-38, 19 figs.
Stoermer, E.F., Yu-Zao, Q. & Ladewski, T.B. (1986). A quantitative investigation of shape variation in Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt (Bacillariophyta). Phycologia 25: 494-502.
Zglobika, I., Chlanda, A., Wozniak, M., Lojkowski, M., Szoszkiewicz, R., Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M., Swieszkowski, W., Wyroba, E. & Kurzydlowski, k.J. (2017). Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of single stalks from diatom Didymosphenia geminata and their change due to adsorption of selected metal ions. Journal of Phycology 53(4): 880-888.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 October 2020.

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