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Alexandrium fundyense Balech 1985

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Pyrocystaceae
Subfamily Ostreopsidoideae
Genus Alexandrium


Publication details
Alexandrium fundyense Balech in D.M.Anderson, A.W.White & D.G.Baden 1985: 37, fig. 18

Published in: Fukuyo, Y., Yoshida, K. & Inoue, H. (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: Toxic dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, June 8-12, 1985. (Anderson, D.M., White, A.W. & Baden, D.G. Eds), pp. 27-32. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech

Type information
Type locality: Canada: Nova Scotia: Bay of Fundy (Index Nominum Algarum). Notes: "No type material for this species exists. This designation is required by the ICN priorto designating an epitype that more fully describesthe morphology of this species (ICN Art 9.8).Alexandrium fundyense Balech in Anderson, &al. (editors), Toxic Dinoflagellates: 37, fig. 18,[Balech E (1985) The genus Alexandrium or Gonyaulax of the tamarensis group. In AndersonDM, White AW & Baden DG (eds) Toxic Dinoflag-ellates, Proceedings of the Third InternationalConference on Toxic Dinoflagellates. Elsevier, NewYork, pp 3338.]
Lectotype designated here: figure 18.
EPITYPE: SEM stub of strain SPE10-03 is des-ignated here as epitype for A. fundyense Balechemend. D.M. Anderson (Fig. 4). It is deposited at theHerbarium Senckenbergianum (FR) in the Centreof Excellence for Dinophyte Taxonomy (identifica-tion number CEDiT2013E25)." (John et al. 2014: 790).
EPITYPE LOCALITY: The type strain SPE10-03 was isolated from Salt Pond in Eastham, Massachusetts USA, 41.835 N 69.972 W on05/12/2001 by K. Gribble.

No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Taxonomic notes
According to Lilly et al. (2007: 1336), the three morphospecies of the A. tamarense complex do not conform to the phylogenetic, biological, or morphological species definition and thus ought not to be considered valid species. Instead, five phylogenetic groups have been identified that are likely cryptic species, and they strongly recommend that these groups be evaluated for species-level status. They argue that geographically based names are no longer indicative of the range occupied by members of each group. They recommend a simple group-numbering scheme for use until the taxonomy of this group is reevaluated and species names proposed. - (11 Mar 2008) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Alexandrium fundyense Balech)
North America: Alaska (Vandersea et al. 2017), California (Montresor & al., 2004 ), Maine (Montresor & al., 2004 ), Newfoundland (Hansen, Daugbjerg & Franco 2003, Montresor & al., 2004), Nova Scotia (Kennaway & Lewis 2004).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Leaw et al 2005).

World: World (Gómez 2005, Gómez 2012).

Source of current name
Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. (2017). Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Algae: 15. Taxon 66(1): 191-192.

Key references
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

John, U., Litaker, R.W., Montresor, M., Murray, S., Brosnahan, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2014). Formal revision of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex (Dinophyceae) taxonomy: the introduction of five species with emphasis on molecular-based (rDNA) classification. Protist 165: 779-804.

Kennaway, G.M. & Lewis, J.M. (2004). An ultrastructural study of hypnozygotes of Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 43: 353-363, 22 figs, 1 table.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M. & Anderson, D.M. (2007). Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 1329-1338.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3753 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Anderson, D.M., Kulis, D.M., Keafer, B.A. & Berdalet, E. (1999). Detection of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) with oligonucleotide and antibody probes: variability in labeling intensity with physiological condition. Journal of Phycology 35: 870-883, 5 figs.
Bricelj, V.M., Lee, J.H., Cembella, A.D. & Anderson, D.M. (1990). Uptake kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the mussel Mytilus edulis. MAR ECOL-PR 63(2-3): 177-188.
Cawley, K.M., Koerfer, V. & McKnight, D.M. (2013). The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality in the growth enhancement of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) in laboratory culture. Journal of Phycology 49(3): 546-554.
John, E.H. & Flynn, K.J. (2000). Growth dynamics and toxicity of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae): the effect of changing N:P supply ratios on internal toxin and nutrient levels. European Journal of Phycology 35: 11-23, 11 figs, 3 tables.
Lyczkowski, E.R. & Karp-Boss, L. (2014). Allelopathic effects of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) on Thalassiosira cf. gravida (Bacillariophyceae): a matter of size. Journal of Phycology 50(2): 376-387.
Scholin, C.A., Anderson, D.M. & Sogin, M.L. (1993). Two distinct small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes in the North American toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 209 -216, 2 figs.
Vandersea, M.W., Kibler, S.R., Van Sant, S.B., Tester, P.A., Sullivan, K., Eckert, G., Cammarata, C., Reece, K., Scott, G., Place, A., Holderied, K., Hondolero, D. & Litaker, W. (2017). qPCR assays for Allexandrium fundyense and A. ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) identified from Alaskan waters and a review of species-specific Alexandrium molecular assays. Phycologia 56(3): 303-320.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=40289

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 28 September 2021.

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