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Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli 1885

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Protoceratiaceae
Genus Protoceratium

Pictures

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Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli
Live cell. The girdle can be found offset by about one girdle width in this species. Note the rugose surface.. © Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).

 

Publication details
Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Bütschli 1885: 1007, pl. 52: fig. 2

Published in: Bütschli, O. (1885). II. Abtheilung: Mastigophora. In: Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs, wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Ester Band Protozoa. ( Eds), pp. 865-1088. Leipzig & Heidelberg: C.F. Winter'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Protoceratium is Protoceratium aceros Bergh.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Peridinium reticulatum Claparède & Lachmann

Type information
Type locality: Norway: Bergen fjord (Index Nominum Algarum).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), reticulate, netted, marked with a network (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Peridiniopsis reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann) Starmach
Peridinium reticulatum Claparède & Lachmann 1859

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Protoceratium aceros Bergh 1881
Gonyaulax grindleyi Reinecke 1967

Usage notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Balkis, N., Balci, M., Giannakourou, A., Venetsanopolou, A. & Mudie, P. (2016). Dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Gemlik (Marmara Sea, Turkey) and seasonal harmful algal blooms. Phycologia 55(2): 187-209.

Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hansen, G., Moestrup, O. & Roberts, K.R. (1997). Light and electron microscopical observations on Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 147: 381-391.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Liu, L. & Hastings, J.W. (2006). Novel and rapidly diverging intergenic sequences between tandem repeats of the luciferase genes in seven dinoflagellate species. Journal of Phycology 42: 96-103.

Mertens, K.N., Carbonell-Moore, M.C., Pospelova, V., Head, M.J., Highfield, A., Schroeder, D., Gu, H., Andree, K.B., Fernández, M., Yamaguchi, A., Takano, Y., Matsuoka, K., Nézan, E., Bilien, G., Okolodkov, Y., Koike, K., Hoppenrath, M., Pfaff, M., Pitcher, G., Al-Muftah, A., Rochon, A., Lim, P.T., Leaw, C.P., Lim, Z.F. & Ellegaard, M. (2017 '2018'). Pentaplacodinium saltonense gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) and its relationship to the cyst-defined genus Operculodinium and yessotoxin-producing Protoceratium reticulatum. Harmful Algae 71: 57-77, 7 text-fig., 7 pl., 1 table.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Paulsen O. (1907). The Peridiniales of the Danish waters. Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser Serie: Plankton 1(5): 1-26, 33 figs.

Salgado, P., Fraga, S., Rodríguez, F. & Riobó, P. (2017 '2018'). Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales), a new dinoflagellate species previously reported as Protoceratium reticulatum. Journal of Phycology 54(1): 126-137.

Salgado, P., Fragra, S., Rodríguez, F. & Bravo, I. (2018). Benthic flattened cells of the phylogenetically related marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum and Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum (Gonyaulacales): a new type of cyst?. Journal o Phycology 54(1): 138-149.

Schiller, J. (1937). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. X. Band, 3. Abt. 2. Teil. (Rabenhorst, L. Eds), pp. 321-590, i-vii. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 June 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3691 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Braarud, T. (1945). Morphological observations on marine dinoflagellate cultures (Porella perforata, Gonyaulax tamarensis, Protoceratium reticulatum). Avhandlinger Norske videnskaps-akademi, matematisk-naturvidenskapelig klasse 1945(11): 1-18.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, O. & Roberts, K.R. (1997). Light and electron microscopical observations on Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 147: 381-391.
Hernandez-Becerril, D.U., Rodríguez-Palacio, C. & Lozano-Ramírez, C. (2010). Morphology of two bloom-forming or potentially toxic marine dinoflagellates from the Mexican Pacific, Heterocapsa pygmaea and Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae). Cryptogamie Algologie 31(2): 245-254, 26 figs.
Mertens, K.N., Carbonell-Moore, M.C., Pospelova, V., Head, M.J., Highfield, A., Schroeder, D., Gu, H., Andree, K.B., Fernández, M., Yamaguchi, A., Takano, Y., Matsuoka, K., Nézan, E., Bilien, G., Okolodkov, Y., Koike, K., Hoppenrath, M., Pfaff, M., Pitcher, G., Al-Muftah, A., Rochon, A., Lim, P.T., Leaw, C.P., Lim, Z.F. & Ellegaard, M. (2017 '2018'). Pentaplacodinium saltonense gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) and its relationship to the cyst-defined genus Operculodinium and yessotoxin-producing Protoceratium reticulatum. Harmful Algae 71: 57-77, 7 text-fig., 7 pl., 1 table.
Paz, P., Blanco, J. & Franco, J.M. (2013). Yessotoxins production during the culture of Protoceratium reticulatum strains isolated from Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain). Harmful Algae 21: 13-19.
Pierangelini, M., Raven, J.A. & Giordano, M. (2017). The relative availability of inorganic carbon and inorganic nitrogen influences the response of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum to elevated CO2. Journal of Phycology 53(2): 298-307.
Ratti, S., Giordano, M & Morse, D. (2007). CO2-concentrating mechanisms of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae, Gonyaulacales). Journal of Phycology 43: 693-701.
Salgado, P., Fraga, S., Rodríguez, F. & Riobó, P. (2017 '2018'). Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales), a new dinoflagellate species previously reported as Protoceratium reticulatum. Journal of Phycology 54(1): 126-137.
Salgado, P., Fragra, S., Rodríguez, F. & Bravo, I. (2018). Benthic flattened cells of the phylogenetically related marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum and Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum (Gonyaulacales): a new type of cyst?. Journal o Phycology 54(1): 138-149.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 September 2020.

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