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Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan 1845

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Bonnemaisoniales
Family Bonnemaisoniaceae
Genus Asparagopsis


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Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
  Granada, Spain. 17 Mar 2021.  M. Altamirano. © Maria Altamirano Jeschke .

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
  Granada, Spain. 17 Mar 2021.  M. Altamirano. © Maria Altamirano Jeschke .

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
  Granada, Spain. 17 Mar 2021.  M. Altamirano. © Maria Altamirano Jeschke .

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
  Granada, Spain. 17 Mar 2021.  M. Altamirano. ©  Maria Altamirano Jeschke .

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Cape Peron, Western Australia. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Caniçal, Madeira. 17 Jan 2019. Pedro Neves. © Pedro Neves (nevesdiver@gmail.com).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
La Rhianna, Andalucia, Spain. 23 Jul 2013. Francis Bunker. © Francis Bunker (fbunker@marineseen.com).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
South Africa. 09 Dec 2011. Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za). © Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Knysna Estuary, Western Cape, South Africa, April 2008. 09 Dec 2011. Robert Anderson. © Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Hawaii; Falkenbergia-phase filaments; scale 100 µm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

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Fucus vesiculosus var. chondriformis J.Agardh

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan South Africa
© Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za)

Publication details
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan 1845: 45

Published in: Trevisan, V.B.A. (1845). Nomenclator algarum, ou collection des noms imposées aux plantes de la famille des algues. pp. 1-80. Padoue [Padua]: Imprimerie du Seminaire.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Asparagopsis is Asparagopsis delilei Montagne.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Fucus taxiformis Delile

Type information
Type locality: Alexandria, Egypt (Silva & al. 1996: 182). Type: herb. Lenormand, C (Yoshida 1998: 648).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), resembling the genus Taxus.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus taxiformis Delile 1813
Lictoria taxiformis (Delile) J.Agardh 1841

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Asparagopsis delilei Montagne 1841
Dasya delilei Montagne 1841
Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harvey 1855
Polysiphonia hilldenbrandii Bornet 1883
Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Bornet) Falkenberg 1901
Polysiphonia patentifurcata V.Schiffner 1929

Distributional notes
According to Womersley (1996) this species is distributed in tropical/ subtropical oceans generally and lists the following Australian locations: Northern Australia to Rottnest I., W. Aust., and southern Qld; Lord Howe I.; The Gulf region of S. Aust. This species has been introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 111) being first found at Alexandria, Egypt around 1798-1801. It is likely that there were two separate introductions: one by shipping and the other via the Suez Canal. The species in now widely distributed in the Mediterranean.

Usage notes
Used fresh in Hawaii as “limu” (generic name for seaweed) to flavour meat and fish dishes.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan)
English: Supreme Limu (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Hawaiian: Limu kohu, Limu lipaakai, Kohu lipeche, Kohu koko (Madlener 1977), Kohu lipehe (Abbott 1984).

Japanese: Kagikenori (Madlener 1977).

(as Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harvey)
Hawaiian: Limu kohu, Limu koko, Limu nipaakai (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
limu kohu; bulaklak {Tagal}

A tropical/subtropical species; thalli are epilithic (Womersley 1996: 331).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Andreakis, N., Costello, P., Zanolla, M., Saunders, G.W. & Mata, L. (2016). Endemic or introduced? Phylogeography of Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae) in Australia reveals multiple introductions and a new mitochondrial lineage (Note). Journal of Phycology 52(1): 141-147.

Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Desikachary, T.V., Balakrishnan, M.S. & Krishnamurthy, V. (1990). Florideophycidae Palmariales - Gelidiales. In: Rhodophyta. II. Taxonomy part. Part IIA. (Desikachary, T.V., Krishnamurthy, V. & Balakrishnan, M.S. Eds), pp. 47-214. Madras, India: Madras Science Foundation.

Dijoux, L., Viard, F., & Payri, C. (2014). The more we search, the more we find: discovery of a new lineage and a new species complex in the genus Asparagopsis. PLoS ONE 9(7): 1-13.

Hayee-Memon, A. & Shameel, M. (1996). A taxonomic study of some red algae commonly growing on the coast of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 5(2): 113-137.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

N'Yeurt, A.D.R. & Payri, C.E. (2010). Marine algal flora of French Polynesia III. Rhodophyta, with additions to the Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyta. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 3-205.

Ní Chualáin, F., Maggs, C.A., Saunders, G.W. & Guiry, M.D. (2004). The invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta): molecular systematics, morphology, and ecophysiology of Falkenbergia isolates. Journal of Phycology 40: 1112-1126.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanova, T.V. (2012). Morskiye rasteniya stran Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskogo regiona, ikh ispol'zovaniye i kul'tivirovaniye [Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation]. pp. 376, 52 numbered figures, 162 plates. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Trono, G.C., Jr (1997). Field guide and atlas of the seaweed resourves of the Philippines. pp. [i]-xx.[1]-306, 168 figs. Makati City, The Philippines: Bookmark, Inc..

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photographs and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1996). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIB - Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. pp. [1]-392, 160 figs. Canberra & Adelaide: Australian Biological Resources Study with assistance from the State Herbarium of South Australia.

Zanolla, M., Altamirano, M., Carmona, R., De la Rosa, J., Souza-Egipsy, V., Sherwood, A., Tsiamis, K., Barbosa, A.M., Muñoz, A.R. & Andreakis, N. (2018). Assessing global range expansion in a cryptic species complex: insights from the red seaweed genus Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae). Journal of Phycology 54(1): 12-24.

Zanolla, M., Carmona, R., De La Rosa, J., Salvador, N., Sherwood, A.R., Andreakis, N. & Altamirano, M. (2014). Morphological differentiation of cryptic lineages within the invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(3): 233-242.

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Zeng, C. (Tseng, C.K.), Luan, R., Chen, Z. & Li, W. (2005). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus II Rhodophyta No. II Acrochaetiales Nemaliales Bonnemaisoniales. pp. [i-vii], i-xxiii, 1-180 , pls I-VIII. Beijing: Science Press.

Created: 29 July 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 June 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 26483 times since it was created.

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Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Altamirano, M., Muñoz, A.R., de la Rosa, J. Barrajon-Minguez, A., Barrajon-Domenech, A., Moreno-Robledo, C., Arroyo, M.C. (2008). The invasive species Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) on Andalusian coasts (southern Spain): reproductive stages, new records and invaded communities. Acta Botanica Malacitana 33: 5-15.
Andreakis, N., Procaccini, G. & Kooistra, W.H.C.F. (2004). Asparagopis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): genetic and morphological identification of Mediterranean populations. European Journal of Phycology 39: 273-284.
Ballesteros, E. & Rodríguez-Prieto, C. (1996). Presencia d'Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan a Balears (Presence of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan in the Balearic Islands). Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears 39: 135-138.
Barone, R. (2004). Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan (Rhodophyta) E Trichodesmium erythraeum Ehrenberg (Cyanobacteria), due taxa algali tropicali identificati nelle acque costiere della Sicilia. Naturalista sicil., S. 4(28): 183-203.
Barone, R., Mannino, A.M. & Marino, M. (2004). Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): first record of gametophytes on the Italian coast. Bocconea 16: 1021-1025.
Bhanderi, P.P. (1975). An estimate of the iodine yielding seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Collins and Hervey ('Hervey') from some subtidal reefs of Saurashtra coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 16: 288-289, 1 table.
Rojas, J.J., Lemus, A. & Ganesan, E.K. (1982). El ciclo vital "in vitro" del alga marina roja Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Collins & Hervey (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) del Mar Caribe. Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. (Cumaná) 21: 101-112.
Sherwood, A.R. (2008). Phylogeography of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisonales, Rhodophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands: two mtDNA markers support three separate introductions. Phycologia 47: 79-88.
Woolard, F.X., Moore, R.E. & Roller, P.P. (1979). Halogenated acetic and acrylic acids from the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis. Phytochemistry 18: 617-620.
Zanolla Balbuena, M. (2014). Análisis del proceso invasor de Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Leon (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta). Doctoral Thesis. : Universidad de Málaga.
Zanolla, M., Altamirano, M., de la Rosa, J., Niell, F.X. & Carmona, R. (2018). Size structure and dynamics of an invasive population of lineage 2 of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Florideophyceae) in the Alboran Sea. Phycological Research 66(1): 45-51.
Zanolla, M., Carmona, R. & Altamirano, M. (2017). Reproductive ecology of an invasive lineage 2 population of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 60(6): 627-638.
Zanolla, M., Carmona, R., de la Rosa, J. & Altamirano, M. (2018). Structure and temporal dynamics of a seaweed assemblage dominated by the invasive lineage 2 of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta) in the Alboran Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 19, 1: 147-155.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 04 August 2021.

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