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Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye 1819

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Ectocarpales
Family Ectocarpaceae
Genus Ectocarpus


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Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye
From Littler, D.S., M.M. Littler & M.D. Hanisak (2008) Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon. Purchase information. Diane Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye
From Littler, D.S., M.M. Littler & M.D. Hanisak (2008) Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon. Purchase information. Diane Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).


Phyllona cordata (Meneghini) Kuntze

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2014
© Ignacio Barbara

Publication details
Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye 1819: 131, pl. 43B, C

Published in: Lyngbye, H.C. (1819). Tentamen hydrophytologiae danicae continens omnia hydrophyta cryptogama Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae hucusque cognita, systematice disposita, descripta et iconibus illustrata, adjectis simul speciebus norvegicis. pp. [i]-xxxii, [1]-248, 70 pls. Hafniae [Copenhagen]: typis Schultzianis, in commissis Librariae Gyldendaliae.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Ectocarpus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Conferva siliculosa Dillwyn

Type information
Syntype localities: Cromer in Norfolk and Hastings in East Sussex, England (Dillwyn 1809: 69). Type: NMW (Ricker 1987 Notes: Womersley (1987) cites the herbarium as BM-K.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Conferva siliculosa Dillwyn 1809
Ceramium siliculosum (Dillwyn) C.Agardh 1811
Ectocarpus confervoides f. siliculosus (Dillwyn) Kjellman 1872
Ectocarpus confervoides var. siliculosus (Dillwyn) Farlow 1881

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. confervoides (Roth) Kjellmann
Ectocarpus confervoides var. brumalis Holden
Ceramium confervoides var. ferrugineum Roth 1806
Ceramium siliculosum var. atrovirens C.Agardh 1817
Ceramium siliculosum var. ferrugineum (Roth) C.Agardh 1817
Ceramium siliculosum var. nebulosum C.Agardh 1817
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. atrovirens (C.Agardh) C.Agardh 1824
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. caespitosus C.Agardh 1824
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. ferrugineus (Roth) C.Agardh 1824
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. nebulosus (C.Agardh) C.Agardh 1824
Ectocarpus spalatinus Kützing 1843
Ectocarpus nebulosus (C.Agardh) Zanardini 1843
Ectocarpus confervoides Le Jolis 1863
Ectocarpus confervoides f. arctus (Kützing) Kjellman 1872
Ectocarpus confervoides f. spalatinus (Kützing) Kjellman 1872
Ectocarpus siliculosus f. nebulosa (C.Agardh) Kjellman 1890
Ectocarpus hiemalis f. spalatinus (Kützing) Kjellman 1890
Ectocarpus confervoides f. typicus Kuckuck 1891
Ectocarpus hansteeni Foslie 1894
Ectocarpus confervoides f. irregularis Collins 1906
Ectocarpus confervoides var. arctus (Kützing) Lily Newton 1931
Ectocarpus siliculosus f. fluviatilis (Kützing) Kuylenstierna 1990

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye)
Swedish: Molnslick (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

(as Ectocarpus confervoides Le Jolis)
Japanese: Kenashi-shiwomidoro (Tokida 1954).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Catra, M., Alongi, G. & Giaccone, G. (2012). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Phaeophyceae. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia 45: 1-508.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Eloranta, P., Kwandrans, J. & Kusel-Fetzmann, E. (2011). Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae. In: Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa Band 7. Freshwater flora of Central Europe. Volume 7. (Schagerl, M. Eds), pp. [i]-x, [1]-155. Heidelberg: Spectrum Akademischer Verlag.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Kim, H.-S. (2010). Ectocarpaceae, Acinetopsoraceae, Chordariaceae. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 2, Number 1. Heterokontophyta: Phaeophyceae: Ectocarpales. Marine brown algae I. (Kim, H.-S. & Boo, S.-M. Eds), pp. [3]-137. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Luan Rixiao, Ding Lanping, Lu Baoren & Tseng, C.K. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus III Phaeophyta No. I(1) Ectocarpales Ralfsiales Sphaceariales Dictyotales. pp. [i]-xxii, 1-195, pls I-XXII. Beijing: Science Press. [in Chinese]

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Montecinos, A.E., Couceiro, L., Peters, A.F., Desrut, A., Valero, M. & Guillemin, M.L. (2017). Species delimitation and phylogeographic analyses in the Ectocarpus subgroup siliculosi (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 17-31.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Pedroche, P.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar Rosas, R. (2008). Catálogo de las algas benthónicas del Pacífico de México II. Phaeophycota. pp. [i-viii], i-vi, 15-146. Mexicali & Berkeley: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California; University of California Berkeley.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Salavarría Palma, E.A. & Paul, S. (2020). A peep into the transcriptome studies of the industrially important brown algae with special focus on Macrocystis genus. Revista Peruana de Biología 27(1): 49-53.

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae e Xanthophyceae). Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-234, pls 1-51. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Zinova, A.D. & Zaberzhinskaja, E.B. (1965). Species algarum pro mari Caspico novae. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum non Vascularium 2: 97-100.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel' zelenykh, burykh i krasnykh vodorosley yuzhnykh morey SSSR [Manual for identification of the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of the USSR]. pp. 224, 222 figures. Moscow & Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. [in Russian]

Created: 11 December 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 February 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 20520 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amsler, C.D., Shelton, K.L., Britton, C.J., Spencer, N.Y. & Greer, S.P. (1999). Nutrients do not influence swimming behaviour or settlement rates of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) spores. Journal of Phycology 35: 239-244, 3 tables.
Bolton, J.J. (1983). Ecoclinal variation in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) with respect to temperature growth optima and survival limits. . Marine Biology, Berlin 73(2): 131-138. [in English]
Bräutigam, M., Klein, M., Knippers, R. & Müller, D.G. (1995). Inheritance and meiotic elimination of a virus genome in the host Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 823-827, 3 figs.
Busch, S. & Schmid, R. (2001). Enzymes associated with beta-carboxylation in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae): Are they involved in net carbon acquisition?. European Journal of Phycology 36: 61-70.
Geller, A. & Müller, D.G. (1981). Analysis of the flagellar beat pattern of male Ectocarpus siliculosus gametes (Phaeophyta) in relation to chemotactic stimulation by female cells. J exp Biol 92: 53-66.
Hall, A. (1980). Heavy metal co-tolerance in a copper-tolerant population of the marine fouling alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngbye. New Phytologist 85: 73-78.
Hall, A. (1981). Copper accumulation in copper-tolerant and non-tolerant populations of the marine fouling alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngbye. Botanica Marina 24: 223-228.
Hall, A., Fielding, A.H. & Butler, M. (1979). Mechanisms of copper tolerance in the marine fouling alga Ectocarpus siliculosus - evidence for an exclusion mechanism. Marine Biology, Berlin 54: 195-199.
Hillrichs, S. & Schmid, R. (2001). Activation by blue light of inorganic carbon aquisition for photosynthesis in Ectocarpus siliculosus: organic acid pools and short-term carbon fixation. European Journal of Phycology 36: 71-80.
Katsaros, C., Kreimer, G. & Melkonian, M. (1991). Localization of tubulin and a centrin-homologue in vegetative cells and developing gametangia of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb. (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) - A combined immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscope study. Bot Acta 104(2): 87-92.
Katsaros, C.I., Maier, I. & Melkonian, M. (1993). Immunolocalization of centrin in the flagellar apparatus of male gametes of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) and other brown algal motile cells. Journal of Phycology 29: 787 -797, 51 figs.
Kawai, H., Müller, D.G., Fölster, E. & Häder, D.-P. (1990). Phototactic responses in the gametes of the brown alga, Ectocarpus siliculosus. Planta 182: 292-297.
Kinoshita, N., Shiba, K., Inaba, K., Fu, G., Nagasato, C. & Motomura, T. (2016). Flagellar waveforms of gametes in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. European Journal of Phycology 51(2): 139-148.
Kreimer, G., Kawai, H., Müller, D.G. & Melkonian, M. (1991). Reflective properties of the stigma in male gametes of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Journal of Phycology 27: 268-276.
Kuckuck, P. (1892). Ectocarpus siliculosus Dillw. sp. forma varians n. f., ein Beispiel für ausserordentliche Schwankungen der pluriloculären Sporangienform. Berichte der deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 10: 256-259, pl. XIII.
Kuhlenkamp, R. & Müller, D.G. (1994). Isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from healthy and virus-infected gametophytes of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 37: 525-530, 11 figs.
Kylin, H. (1943). Ectocarpus siliculosus mit unilokulären und plurilokulären Sporangien in kultur aufgezogen. Botaniska Notiser 1943: 295-298.
Le Bail, A., Billoud, B., Maisonneuve, C., Peters, A.F., Cock, J.M. & Charrier, B. (2008). Early development pattern of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophceae) sporophyte. Journal of Phycology 44: 1269-1281.
Müller, D. G. & Frenzer, K. (1993). Virus infections in three marine brown algae: Feldmannia irregularis, F. simplex, and Ectocarpus siliculosus. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 37-44.
Maier, I. (1997). The fine structure of the male gamete of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). I. General structure of the cell. European Journal of Phycology 32: 241-253, 39 figs.
Maier, I. (1997). The fine structure of the male gamete of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). II. The flagellar apparatus. European Journal of Phycology 32: 255-266, 66 figs.
Müller D. G., Kawai H., Stache B. & Lanka S. (1990). A virus infection in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Acta 103: 72-82.
Müller, D.G. & Eichenberger, W. (1995). Note: Crossing experiments, lipid composition, and the species concept in Ectocarpus siliculosus and E. fasciculatus (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales). Journal of Phycology 31: 173-176, 5 figs, 1 table.
Müller, D.G. & Falk, H. (1973). Flagellar structure of the gametes of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta) as revealed by negative staining. Arch. Hydrobiol. 91: 313-322.
Müller, D.G. & Kawai, H. (1991). Sexual reproduction of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) in Japan. Japanese Journal of Phycology 39: 151-155.
Müller, D.G. (1967). Generationswechsel, Kernphasenwechsel und Sexualität der Braunalge Ectocarpus siliculosus im Kulturversuch. Planta 75: 39-54.
Müller, D.G. (1972). Studies on reproduction in Ectocarpus siliculosus. Soc. Bot. Fr., Mém. 1972: 87-98.
Müller, D.G. (1975). Experimental evidence against sexual fusions of spores from unilocular sporangia of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta). British Phycological Journal 10: 315-321.
Müller, D.G. (1976). Relative sexuality in Ectocarpus siliculosus. A scientific error. Archives for Microbiology 109: 89-94.
Müller, D.G. (1976). Sexual isolation between a European and an American population of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 12: 252-254.
Müller, D.G. (1977). Sexual reproduction in British Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta). British Phycological Journal 12: 131-136.
Müller, D.G. (1978). Locomotive responses of male gametes to the species specific sex attractant in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta). Archiv für Protistenkunde 120: 371-377.
Müller, D.G. (1979). Genetic affinity of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngbye from the Mediterranean, North Atlantic and Australia. Phycologia 18: 312-318.
Müller, D.G. (1980). Development of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta). Publikationen zu Wissenschaftlichen Filmen Biologie No 13: 3-15.
Müller, D.G. (1988). Studies on sexual compatibility between Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Chile and the Mediterranean Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 42(3-4): 469-476.
Müller, D.G. (1991). Marine virioplankton produced by infected Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 76: 101-102.
Müller, D.G. (1991). Mendelian segregation of a virus genome during host meiosis in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Journal of Plant Physiology 37: 739-743.
Müller, D.G., Kawai, H., Stache, B. & Lanka, S. (1990). A virus infection in the marine brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Acta 103: 72-82.
Papenfuss, G.F. (1933). Note on the life-cycle of Ectocarpus siliculosus Dillw.. Sceince 77: 390-391.
Papenfuss, G.F. (1935). Alternation of generations in Ectocarpus siliculosus. Botanical Gazette 96: 421-446.
Peters, A.F., Marie, D., Scornet, D., Kloareg, B. & Cock, J.M. (2004). Proposal of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) as a model organism for brown algal genetics and genomics. Journal of Phycology 40: 1079-1088.
Peters, A.F., Scornet, D., Muller, D.G., Kloareg, B, & Cock, J.M. (2004). Inheritance of organelles in artificial hybrids of the isogamous multicellular chromist alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 39: 235-242.
Russell, G. & Bolton, J.J. (1975). Euryhaline ecotypes of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb.. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci. 3: 91-94.
Russell, G. & Morris, O.P. (1970). Copper tolerance in the marine fouling alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Nature, London 228(5268): 288-289.
Sáez, C.A., Ramesh, K., Greco, M., Bitonti, M.B. & Brown, M.T. (2015). Enzymatic antioxidant defences are transcriptionally regulated in Es524, a copper-tolerant strain of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 54(4): 425-429.
Schmid, C. E. (1993). Cell-cell-recognition during fertilization in Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 437-443.
Schmid, R. & Dring, M.J. (1992). Stimulation of red light saturated photosynthesis and shifting of the circadian photosynthetic rhythm by blue light in Ectocarpus siliculosus. British Phycological Journal 27: 100.
Schmid, R. & Hillrichs, S. (2001). Uptake and accumulation of inorganic carbon in Ectocarpus siliculosus and its relation to blue light stimulation of photosynthesis. European Journal of Phycology 36: 257-264.
Sengco, M.R., Bräutigam, M., Kapp, M. & Müller, D.G. (1996). Detection of virus DNA in Ectocarpus siliculosus and E. fasciculatus (Phaeophyceae) from various geographic areas. European Journal of Phycology 31: 73-78, 2 figs, 5 tables.
Thomas, D.N. & Kirst, G.O. (1990). Salinity tolerance of Ectocarpus siliculosus - influence of life-cycle. British Phycological Journal 25: 97.
Thomas, D.N. & Kirst, G.O. (1990). Salt tolerance of Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngb.: Comparison of gametophytes, sporophytes and isolates of different geographic origin. Botanica Acta 104: 26-36.
Thomas, D.N. & Kirst, G.O. (1991). Differences in osmoacclimation between sporophytes and gametophytes of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Physiologia Plantarum 82: 1-9.
Woolery, M.L. & Lewin, R.A. (1973). Influence of iodine on growth and development of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus in axenic cultures. Phycologia 12: 131-138, 4 figs.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 July 2021.

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