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Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters 1902

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Ceramiales
Family Delesseriaceae
Subfamily Phycodryoideae
Tribe Phycodryeae
Genus Phycodrys


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Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Mullaghmore, Co. Sligo, Ireland. 26 May 1994. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; drift. 08 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; drift. 08 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).


Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters Mullaghmore, Co. Sligo, Ireland
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters 1902: 76

Published in: Batters, E.A.L. (1902). A catalogue of the British marine algae being a list of all the species of seaweeds known to occur on the shores of the British Islands, with the localities where they are found. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 40(Supplement): 1-107.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Phycodrys is Phycodrys sinuosa (Goodenough & Woodward) Kützing.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Fucus rubens Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: unlocalised ("in Oceano") (Athanasiadis 1996: 114). Holotype: undated; L 910.128.1044 Notes: Dixon, 1964, fig. 1

Origin of species name
Participle (Latin), reddish (Stearn 1985).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus rubens Linnaeus 1753
Agarum rubens (Linnaeus) Link 1809
Prolifera rubens Stackhouse 1809
Delesseria rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Phyllophora rubens (Linnaeus) Greville 1830

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Delesseria crenata var. incrassata (Turner) Ruprecht
Fucus crenatus S.G.Gmelin 1768
Fucus cartilagineus Forsskål 1775
Fucus roseus O.F.Müller 1775
Fucus epiphyllus O.F.Müller 1777
Fucus sinuosus Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus sinuosus var. incrassatus Turner 1808
Delesseria sinuosa J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Sphaerococcus sinuosus (Goodenough & Woodward) C.Agardh 1817
Delesseria sinuosa var. ciliata Lyngbye 1819
Phycodrys sinuosa (Goodenough & Woodward) Kützing 1843
Delesseria crenata var. ciliata (Lyngbye) Ruprecht 1850
Delesseria hypoglossum var. incrassata (Turner) Ruprecht 1850
Delesseria crenata (S.G.Gmelin) Ruprecht 1850
Phycodrys sinuosa f. typica Kjellman 1877
Phyllophora epiphylla (O.F.Müller) Batters 1902
Delesseria sinuosa f. sublinearis Rosenvinge 1924
Phycodrys crenata (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva 1996

Nomenclatural notes
Silva, Basson & Moe (1996: 905-906) examined the complicated nomenclatural history of this species and concluded that the correct name for the entity was Phycodrys crenata (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva. However, this conclusion was strongly refuted by Wynne (1997: 330) and the name Phycodrys rubens is retained here.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Phycodrys rubens (Linnaeus) Batters)
English: Sea Oak (Bunker & al. 2010).

Swedish: Ekblading (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Flattened, leafy, purple-crimson fronds, to 300 mm long. Cylindrical stipe continues as midrib of elliptical or ovate blade, membranous and monstromatic except for pinnate paired lateral veins extending into lobes of blade. Marginal lobes grow into secondary blades, which may in turn develop tertiary blades,each sinuate or lobed like oak leaf. Margin sinuous, toothed or drawn out into slender, repeatedly divided processes.

On rock or epiphytic, especially on Laminaria hyperborea stipes, lower intertidal pools and subtidal, generally distributed, common.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H. (1993). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 3A. Ceramiales. pp. [i]-xv, 1-444, 129 figs, map. London: HMSO.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 1 Rødalger (Rhodophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 7: [1]-398, col. figs and distributional maps.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Vinogradova, K.L. (2011). The order Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) in the flora of the Arctic Ocean. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg) 96(6): 681-695.

Wynne, M.J. & Heine, J.N. (1992). Collections of marine red algae from St. Matthew and St. Lawrence Islands, the Bering Sea. Nova Hedwigia 55: 55-97.

Wynne, M.J. (2014 '2013'). The red algal families Delesseriaceae and Sarcomeniaceae. pp. [1]-326, 118 figs. Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 February 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 7141 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Molenaar, F.J. & Breeman, A.M. (1997). Latitudinal trends in the growth and reproductive seasonality of Delesseria sanguinea, Membranoptera alata and Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 33: 330-343, 9 figs, 3 tables.
Novaczek, I., Lubbers, G.W. & Breeman, A.M. (1990). Thermal ecotypes of amphi-Atlantic algae .I. Algae of Arctic to cold-temperate distribution (Chaetomorpha melagonium, Devaleraea ramentacea and Phycodrys rubens). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 44: 459-474.
Rietema, H. (1991). Evidence for ecotypic divergence between Phycodrys rubens populations from the Baltic Sea and North Sea. Botanica Marina 34: 375-381, 8 figs.
van Oppen, M.J.H., Olsen, J.L. & Stam, W.Y. (1995). Genetic variation within and among North Atlantic and Baltic populations of the benthic alga Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 30: 251-260.
Voskoboinikov, G.M., Breeman, A.M., van den Hoek, C., Makarov, V.N. & Shoshina, E.V. (1996). Influence of temperature and photoperiod on survival and growth of north east Atlantic isolates of Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta) from different latitudes. Botanica Marina 39: 341-346, 1 fig, 2 tables.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 July 2021.

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