163,924 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,106 bibliographic items, 484,278 distributional records.

Lingulodinium polyedra (F.Stein) J.D.Dodge 1989

Publication details
Lingulodinium polyedra (F.Stein) J.D.Dodge 1989: [271], 291, figs 1 H-I, 34-38

Published in: Dodge, J.D. (1989). Some revisions of the family Gonyaulacaceae (Dinophyceae) based on a scanning electron microscope study. Botanica Marina 32: 275-298, 42 figs, 2 tables.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Lingulodinium is Lingulodinium machaerophorum (Deflandre & Cookson) D.Wall.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein

Type information
Type locality: Baltic Sea, off Germany. Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Fjord, probably late summer 1879 (Tillmann & al. 2021: [14]). Notes: lectotype, designated by Tillmann & al (2021: 14) [illustration] pl. IV 8! in Stein (1883); epitype, designated by Tillmann & al (2021: 14) for the lectotype they designated: Baltic Sea, off Germany. Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Fjord, 9th September 2019: [SEM stub] U. Tillmann, M. Gottschling & H. Gu [U. Tillmann K3-G8] s.n. (CEDiT2020E108!). Formol-fixed material is also available (CEDit2020RM109).

Origin of species name
Noun (Greek), Gr. poly, many; Gr. hedra, f. seat, chair, base, plane, side (Brown 1954).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Lingulodinium machaerophorum (Deflandre & Cookson) D.Wall 1967

Nomenclatural notes
The epithet "polyedra" is a noun in apposition and is non-declinable, so use of the epithet "polyedrum", supposedly to agree with the gender of the genus name, is incorrect. ICN Art 23.5 [Melbourne Code]: "The specific epithet, when adjectival in form and not used as a noun, agrees grammatically with the generic name; when it is a noun in apposition or a genitive noun, it retains its own gender and termination irrespective of the gender of the generic name. Epithets not conforming to this rule are to be corrected (see Art. 32.2)." - (6 Jan 2018) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 46) notes the reported presence of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison toxin, in water samples taken during a bloom of this species. Please consult original reference for futher details.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Balkis, N., Balci, M., Giannakourou, A., Venetsanopolou, A. & Mudie, P. (2016). Dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Gemlik (Marmara Sea, Turkey) and seasonal harmful algal blooms. Phycologia 55(2): 187-209.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Figueroa, R.I. & Bravo, I. (2005). Sexual reproduction and two different encystment strategies of Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 41: 370-379.

Gómez, F. (2005). A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world's oceans. Acta Botanica Croatica 64: 129-212.

Jeong, H.J., Kim, H.R., Kim, K.L., Kim, K.Y., Park, K.H., Kim, S.T., Yoo, Y.D., Song, J.Y., Kim, J.S., Seong, K.A., Yih, W.H., Pae, S.J., Lee, C.H., Huh, M.D. & Lee, S.H. (2002). NaOCl produced by electrolysis of natural seawater as a potential method to control marine red-tide dinoflagellates. Phycologia 41: 643-656.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Lewis, J., Taylor, J.D., Neale, K. & Leroy, S.A.G. (2018). Expanding known dinoflagellate distributions: investigations of slurry cultures from Caspian Sea. Botanica Marina 61(1): 21-31.

Liu, L. & Hastings, J.W. (2006). Novel and rapidly diverging intergenic sequences between tandem repeats of the luciferase genes in seven dinoflagellate species. Journal of Phycology 42: 96-103.

Lundholm, N., Ribeira, S., Andersen, T.J., Koch, T., Godhe, A., Ekelund, F. & Ellegaard, M. (2011). Buried alive - germination of up to a century-old marine protist resting stages. Phycologia 50(6): 629-640.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Tillmann, U., Bantle, A., Krock, B., Elbrächter, M & Gottschling, M. (2021). Recommendations for epitypification of dinophytes exemplified by Lingulodinium polyedra and molecular phylogenetics of the Gonyaulacales based on curated rRNA sequence data. Harmful Algae 103: [1-16], 8 figs, 3 tables.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 March 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 4770 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Tillmann, U., Bantle, A., Krock, B., Elbrächter, M & Gottschling, M. (2021). Recommendations for epitypification of dinophytes exemplified by Lingulodinium polyedra and molecular phylogenetics of the Gonyaulacales based on curated rRNA sequence data. Harmful Algae 103: [1-16], 8 figs, 3 tables.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 27 October 2021.

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