153,560 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,957 images, 59,363 bibliographic items, 410,286 distributional records.

Eleutherospora Heydrich, 1900

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Hapalidiaceae
Subfamily Melobesioideae

Holotype species: Eleutherospora polymorpha Heydrich

Currently accepted name for the type species: Phymatolithon purpureum (P.Crouan & H.Crouan) Woelkerling & L.M.Irvine

Original publication and holotype designation: Heydrich, F. (1900). Die Lithothamnien von Helgoland. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F. 4 (Abt. Helgoland): 63-82, pl. 2.

Precise date of publication1900 (more precise date not determined) The requirements for valid publication are specified in the ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature)

Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Phymatolithon.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

In accordance with ICBN Art 13.3, the name Eleutherospora Heydrichis treated as pertaining to a non-fossil taxon because its type is based on a non-fossil specimen. No species based on fossil types have been assigned to the genus to date.

The generic name Eleutherospora is typified (ICBN Art. 10.1) by the type of E. polymorphum, the only species originally included in the genus. Although Heydrich based his species name on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, his binomial is correctly cited as Eleutherospora polymorpha Heydrich and not E. polymorpha (Linnaeus) Heydrich because Millepora polymorpha is illegitimate (see below) and thus cannot serve as a basionym (ICBN Art. 45.3). Eleutherospora polymorpha Heydrich is considered to be a new name (ICBN Art. 58) but is also illegitimate because Heydrich did not explicitly exclude the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas (see ICBN Art. 58, Note 1) from his species.

Both Eleutherospora and Phymatolithon are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (1767: 1285), a superfluous substitute name for Millepora calcarea Pallas (1766: 265) and thus illegitimate under ICBN Art. 52. In accordance with ICBN Art.7.5, Millepora polymorpha is automatically typified by the type of M. calcarea, the name that should have been adopted under the rules. Because the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas typifies the name Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (and thus the names Phymatolithon polymorphum Foslie and Eleutherospora polymorpha Heydrich), it also typifies the generic names Phymatolithon and Eleutherospora (ICBN Art. 10.1). The current correct name for Millepora calcarea is Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin (1970: 100).

Woelkerling & Irvine (1986: 58) designated a specimen in the Natural History Museum, London (BM, Algal Box Collection 1626) as neotype of Millepora calcarea Pallas. Spencer et al. (2009: 253) noted, however, that subsequent changes in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature meant that this neotypification had to be superseded. Consequently L.M. Irvine (in Spencer et al. 2009: 253) lectotypified the species with one of the illustrations cited in the protologue by Pallas (1766), namely Tab. 27, fig. C in Ellis (1755), and Woelkerling & Irvine (in Spencer et al. 2009: 253) then designated the specimen in BM Algal Box Collection 1626 (BM 000562555, depicted in Woelkerling & Irvine 1986: figs 1A, 2-15) as epitype.

Phymatolithon Foslie (1898) is formally conserved against Apora Gunnerus (1768) under ICBN Art 14 and is listed in the Nomina Generica Conservanda (ICBN, Appendix III, A9). In accordance with ICBN Art. 14.4, Phymatolithon is also automatically conserved against all other homotypic synonyms (generic names based on the same type), including Eleutherospora, which technically is also a later synonym and thus superfluous (ICBN Art. 52). Further data relating to the conservation of Phymatolithon Foslie are provided in Woelkerling & Irvine (1986), Irvine & Woelkerling (1986) Woelkerling (1988: 199).

The application of ICBN Art 45.3 & Art. 58 in determining authorship and illegitimacy was ascertained in email correspondence in May 2009 with Paul Silva (Chairman, Permanent Nomenclature Committee for Algae) and John McNeill (Chairman, Editorial Committee for the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005). - (28 Aug 2009) -

Description: No description is provided as this name is currently treated as a synonym.

Information kindly contributed by Wm. J. Woelkerling but may now be outdated.

Comments: Seven generic names are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus and thus are ultimately typified by the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas. Chronologically these are Apora Gunnerus (1768), Nullipora Lamarck (1801), Agardhina Nardo (1834), Agardhia Meneghini (1838), Juergensia Reichenbach (1841), Phymatolithon Foslie (1898) and Eleutherospora Heydrich (1900). Because Phymatolithon is a conserved name, it automatically takes precedence over the other seven names, which must be rejected under ICBN Art. 14.4, irrespective of when they were validly published. Separate entries for each name are provided in AlgaeBase.

An account of the epitype specimen of Millepora calcarea Pallas, the correct name for Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, is provided by Woelkerling & Irvine (1986, as Phymatolithon calcareum).

Numbers of names and species: There are 1 species names in the database at present.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.

Ellis, J. (1755). An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype taken near the North Pole, by the whale-fishers, in the summer 1753. pp. [i]-xvii, [10 p. cont., err.], [i]-i03, frontispiece, pl. 1-37 [+2 unnumbered], copperplate. London: Printed for the Authors;. and Sold by A. Millar, in the Strand; J. and J. Rivington, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall.

Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.

Gunnerus, J.E. (1768). Om nogle norske Coraller [On some Norwegian corals]. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 4: 38-73, pls 1-4, 8, 10, 11, 15.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Die Lithothamnien von Helgoland. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F. 4 (Abt. Helgoland): 63-82, pl. 2.

Irvine, L.M. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1986). Proposal to conserve Phymatolithon against Apora (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae). Taxon 35: 731-733.

Lamarck, J.B. de (1801). Systeme des Animaux sans vertebres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'après la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Hist. Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées. Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République.. pp. i-viii, 1-432. Paris: Chez l'Auteur, au Muséum d'Hist[oire] Naturelle; Chez Derteville, Libraire, rue du Battoir n° 16, quartier de l'Odéon..

Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. Editio duodecima, reformata. pp. 533-1327 [1328] [+ 1-36]. Homiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Meneghini, G. (1838). Cenni sulla organographia e fisiologia delle alghe. Nuovi Saggi della [Cesarea] Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Padova 4: 325-388.

Nardo, G.D. (1834). De corallinis ac nulliporis auct. Isis von Oken 1834(1): 673-675.

Pallas, P.S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adurnbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymis. pp. [i]-xvi + [17]-451. Hagae-Comitum ['s Gravenhage; The Hague]: apud Petrum van Cleef.

Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1841). Repertorium herbarii, sive, Nomenclator generum plantarum systematicus synonymicus et alphabeticus ad usum practicum accommodatus... pp. i-xxv, 1-214, 1-240. Dresden: Arnold.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988). The Coralline Red Algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. pp. i-xi, 1-268, 259 figs, tables numbered by chapter. London & Oxford: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Irvine, L.M. (1986). The typification and status of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 21: 55-80, 18 figs.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 23 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

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Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 November 2018.

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