153,822 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,012 images, 59,572 bibliographic items, 413,461 distributional records.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Caulerpaceae
Genus Caulerpa

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Palau Islands, West Pacific. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Palau Islands, West Pacific. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Palau Islands, West Pacific, 30 m deep. 07 Dec 2004. Hideo Ohba. © Palau International Coral Reef Center.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
1. Habit. 2. Upper subtidal (Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam).. 29 Feb 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru). © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Hawaii; scale is 5 mm. 15 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Hawaii; scale 2 mm. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Caulerpa taxifolia , Lord Howe Island, Australia. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Caulerpa taxifolia , Lord Howe Island, Australia. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

1  2  Next

19 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Ishige foliacea Okamura

Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh Caulerpa taxifolia , Lord Howe Island, Australia
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh 1817: xxii

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1817). Synopsis algarum Scandinaviae, adjecta dispositione universali algarum. pp. [i]-xl, [1]-135. Lundae [Lund]: Ex officina Berlingiana.
 Download PDF

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Caulerpa is Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskål) J.V.Lamouroux.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus taxifolius M.Vahl

Type information
Type locality: St. Croix, Virgin Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 846).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus taxifolius M.Vahl 1802

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Caulerpa pennata J.V.Lamouroux 1809
Caulerpa taxifolia f. typica Svedelius 1906

Taxonomic notes
Records of C. taxifolia may in some instances be referable to C. mexicana which was for a time regarded as a synonym of this entity. John et al.(2004) cite Caulerpa pectinata Kütz. and Caulerpa pinnata(L.) Weber Bosse as synonyms of this species.

Distributional notes
Caulerpa taxifolia introductions are now a global problem with populations in the Mediterranean, Australia and California. The aquarium trade is partly responsible for spreading the entity. According to John et al. (2004), "Doubt inevitably attaches to many of these records since some might be more correctly attributed to C. mexicana, a species which has erroneously been placed in the synonymy of C. taxifolia. The latter is not known to occur in the Canary Islands, see Haroun et al. (2002)." Regarded as a serious pest in South Australia (Womersley 2003: 499). Kraft (2007: 178): "This alga has been introduced in to the Sydney area, New South Wales and has spread to the detriment of native species. Molecular analyses has found these populations to match the aquarium escapee vegetative strain that has had disastrous consequences in the Mediterranean, California ... and elsewhere. However, Lord Howe Island representatives long predate the mainland introductions and are more closely related to populations from Indonesia, New Caledonia and the Red Sea, indicating that they are unlikely to be antropogenically derived." Verlaque et al. (2015: 259) confirm that Mediterranean populations "escaped from an aquarium [a public one] at Monaco;..". The initial introduced strain in the Mediterranean was from SE Australia but other introduced strains appear to be from the SW Pacific (Australia).

Habitat notes
On rocky and sandy bottom sheltered from waves, as a dominant species in communities with Jania rubens, Padina pavonica and Halimeda tuna (Turan et al. 2011). - (1 Nov 2012) - Wendy Guiry

Conservational notes
conservational note - (6 Nov 2015) - Pier Kuipers

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
lukay-lukay {Phil}

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Belton, G.S., Huisman, J.M. & Gurgel, C.F.D. (2015). Caulerpaceae. In: Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. (Huisman, J.M. Eds), pp. 75-102. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Famá, P., Wysor, B., Kooistra, W.H.C.F. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2002). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Caulerpa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) inferred from chloroplast tufA gene. Journal of Phycology 38: 1040-1050.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Jousson, O., Pawlowski, J., Zaninetti, L., Meinesz, A. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (1998). Molecular evidence for the aquarium origin of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced to the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 172: 275-280.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Olsen, J.L., Valero, M., Meusnier, I., Boele-Bos, S. & Stam, W.T. (1998). Mediterranean Caulerpa taxifolia and C. mexicana (Chlorophyta) are not conspecific. Journal of Phycology 34: 850-856, 2 figs, 2 tables.

Phillips, J.A. (2009). Reproductive ecology of Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in subtropical eastern Australia. European Journal of Phycology 44(1): 81-88.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Sauvage, T., Payri, C., Draisma, S.G.A., Prud'homme van Reine, W.F., Verbruggen, H., Belton, G.S., Gurgel, F.D., Gabriel, D., Sherwood, A.R. & Fredericq, S. (2013). Molecular diversity of the Caulerpa racemosa-Caulerpa peltata complex (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in New Caledonia, with new Australasian records for C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Phycologia 52(1): 6-13.

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2004). New records and notes on marine benthic algae of American Samoa - Chlorophyta & Phaeophyta. Cryptogamie Algologie 25: 291-312.

Stam, W.T., Olsen, J.L., Zaleski, S.F., Murray, S.N., Brown, K.R. & Walters, L.J. (2006). A forensic and phylogenetic survey of Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium shops, and e-commerce: establishing a proactive baseline for early detection. Journal of Phycology 42: 1113-1124.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Svedelius, N. (1906). Reports on the marine algae of Ceylon. No. 1. Ecological and systematic studies of the Ceylon species of Caulerpa. Ceylon Marine Biological Laboratory Reports 2(4): 81-144, 51 figs.

Terrados, J. & Marba, N. (2006). Is the vegetative development of the invasive chlorophycean, Caulerpa taxifolia, favored in sediments with a high content of organic matter?. Botanica Marina 49: 331-338.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Varela-Alvarez, E., Andreakis, N., Lago-Leston, A., Pearson, G.A., Serrão, E.A., Procaccini, G., Duarte, C.M. & Marba, N. (2006). Genomic DNA isolation from green and brown algae (Caulerpales and Fucales) for microsatellite library construction (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 741-745.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Created: 12 December 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 29 June 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 15123 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Aires, T., Marba, N., Serrao, E.A., Duarte, C.M. & Arnaud-Haond, S. (2012). Selective elimination of chloroplastidial DNA for metagenomics of bacteria associated with the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidophyceae). Journal of Phycology 48(2): 483-490.
Barbier, P., Guise, S., Huitorel, P., Amade, P., Pesando, D., Briand, C., Peyrot, V. (2001). Caulerpenyne from Caulerpa taxifolia has an antiproliferative activity on tumor cell line SK-N-SH and modifies the microtubule network.. Life Sci. 70: 415-429.
Bellan-Santini, D., Arnaud, P.M., Bellan, G. & Verlaque, M. (1996). The influence of the introduced tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia, on the biodiversity of the Mediterranean marine biota. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 76: 235-237, 1 table.
Boudouresque, C.-F., Bellan-Santini, D., Belsher, T., Duclerc, J., Durand-Clement, M., Francour, P., Harmelin-Vivien, M., Henocque, Y., Meinesz, A., Pesando, D., Pietra, F. & Verlaque, M. (1992). The introduction of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia into the Mediterranean: the repercussions for the indigenous communities. Mésogée 52: 88-89.
Boudouresque, C.-F., Meinesz, A., Ribera, M.A. & Ballesteros, E. (1995). Spread of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean: possible consequences of a major ecological event. Sci. Mar. 59(Suppl. 1): 21-29, 1 fig.
Boudouresque, C.-F., Meinesz, A., Verlaque, M. & Knoepffler-Peguy, M. (1992). The expansion of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean. Cryptogamie, Algologie 13(2): 144-145.
Box, A., Sureda, A., Tauler, P., Terrados, J., Marba, N., Pons, A. & Deudero, S. (2010). Seasonality of caulerpenyne content in native Caulerpa prolifera and invasive C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindraceae in western Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 53(4): 367-375.
Ceccherelli, G. & Cinelli, F. (1997). Short-term effects of nutrient enrichment of the sediment and interactions between the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and the introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia in a Mediterranean bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 217: 165-177.
Ceccherelli, G. & Cinelli, F. (1998). Habitat effect on spatio-temporal variability in size and density of the introduced alga Caulerpa taxifolia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163: 289-294.
Ceccherelli, G. & Cinelli, F. (1999). A pilot study of nutrient enriched sediments in a Cymodocea nodosa bed invaded by the introduced alga Caulerpa taxifolia. Botanica Marina 42: 409-417.
Ceccherelli, G. & Cinelli, F. (1999). Effects of Posidonia oceanica canopy on Caulerpa taxifolia size in a north-western Mediterranean bay. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 240: 19-36.
Ceccherelli, G. & Cinelli, F. (1999). The role of vegetative fragmentation in the dispersal of the invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 182: 299-303.
Chisholm, J.R.M. & Jaubert, J.M. (1999). Comments on the article of Olsen et al. (1998): Mediterranean Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa mexicana (Chlorophyta) are not conspecific. Journal of Phycology 35: 438-440, 1 fig.
Chisholm, J.R.M., Jaubert, J.M. & Giaccone, G. (1995). Caulerpa taxifolia in the northwest Mediterranean: introduced species or migrant from the Red Sea?. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 318D: 1219-1226.
de Vaugelas, J., Meinesz, A., Coquillard, P. & Hill, D. (1997). A computer simulation to evaluate the impact of Caulerpa taxifolia on Mediterranean biodiversity. Vie et Milieu 47(4): 397-400.
de Villèle, X. & Verlaque, M. (1995). Changes and degradation in a Polidonia oceanica bed invaded by the introduced tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia in the north western Mediterranean. Botanica Marina 38: 79-87, 11 figs, 1 table.
Delgado, O., Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Gacia, E. & Ballesteros, E. (1996). Lack of severe nutrient limitation in Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, an introduced seaweed spreading over the oligotrophic northwestern Mediterranean. Botanica Marina 39: 61-67.
Ferla, S., Tomasello, A., Ferreri, B., Fradà Orestano, C. & Calvo, S. (1994). Preliminary notes on epiphyte macroflora of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Straits of Messina. Giornale Botanico Italiano 128: 1096-1098.
Fischel, J.L., Lemee, R., Formento, P., Caldani, C., Moll, J.L., Pesando, D., Meinesz, A., Grelier, P., Pietra, F., Guerriero, A. & Milano, G. (1995). Cell growth inhibitory effects of caulerpenyne, a sesquiterpenoid from the marine alga Caulerpa taxifolia.. Anticancer Res. 15: 2155-2160.
Gacia, E., Rodriguez-Prieto, C., Delgado, O. & Ballesteros, E. (1996). Seasonal light and temperature responses of Caulerpa taxifolia from the northwestern Mediterranean. Aquatic Botany 53: 215-225.
Galgani, I., Pesando, D., Porthe-Nibelle, J., Fossat, B. & Girard, J.P. (1996). Effect of caulerpenyne, a toxin extracted fromCaulerpa taxifolia on mechanisms regulating intracellular pH in sea urchin eggs and sea bream hepatocytes. J. Giochem. Toxicol. 11: 243-250.
Ganteaume, A., Gobert, J., Malestroit, P., Ménager, V., Francour, P. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (1998). In vitro consumption of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) by accustomed and non-accustomed Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoid): seasonal variations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 78: 239-248, 1 fig, 1 table.
Hasni, S., Zahid, P.B. & Bawani, B. (1986). Taxonomy and some biochemical values of Caulerpa taxifolia and Hypnea muciformis collected from Karachi Coast. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 29: 284-287, 2 figs, 1 table.
Ivesa, L., Blazina, M. & Najdek, M. (2004). Seasonal variations in fatty acid composition of Caulerpa taxifolia (M. Vahl) C. Ag. in the northern Adriatic Sea (Malinska, Croatia). Botanica Marina 47: 209-214.
Jaubert, J.M., Chisholm, J.R.M., Passeron-Seitre, G., Ducrot, D., Ripley, H.T. & Roy, L. (1999). No deleterious alterations in Posidonia beds in the Bay of Menton (France) eight years after Caulerpa taxifolia colonization. Journal of Phycology 35: 1113-1119.
Jongma, D.N., Campo, D., Dattolo, E., D'Esposito, D., Duchi, A., Grewe, P., Huisman, J., Verlaque, M., Yokes, M.B. & Procaccini, G. (2013). Identity and origin of a slender Caulerpa taxifolia strain introduced into the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 56(1): 27-39.
Jousson, O., Pawlowski, J., Zaninetti, L., Meinesz, A. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (1998). Molecular evidence for the aquarium origin of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced to the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 172: 275-280.
Meinesz, A. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (1996). Sur l'origine de Caulerpa taxifolia en Méditerranée. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 319: 603-613, 4 figs, 1 table.
Meinesz, A. & Hesse, B. (1991). Introduction et invasion de l'algue tropicale Caulerpa taxifolia en Méditeranée nord-occidentale. Oceanologia Acta 14: 415-426.
Meinesz, A., Belsher, T., Thibaut, T., Antolic, B., Benmustapha, K., Boudouresque, C.F., Chiaverini, D., Cinelli, F., Cottalorda, J.M., Djellouli, A., El Abed, A., Orestano, C., Graua, M., Ivesa, L., Jaklin, A., Langar, A., Massuti-Pascual, E., Peirano, A., Tunesi, L., Vaugelas, J. DE., Zavodnik, N. & A. Zuljevic (2001). The introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia continued to spread in the Mediterranean. Biol. Invasions 3: 201-210.
Meinesz, A., Benichou, L., Blachier, J., Komatsu, T., Lemée, R., Molenaar, H. & Mari, X. (1995). Variations in the structure, morphology and biomass of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica Marina 38: 499-508, 10 figs.
Meinesz, A., de Vaugelas, J., Hesse, B. & Mari, X. (1993). Spread of the introduced tropical green alga Caulerpa taxifolia in northern Mediterranean waters. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 141-147.
Meusnier, I., Valero, M., Olsen, J.L. & Stam, W.T. (2004). Analysis of rDNA ITS1 indels in Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) supports a derived, incipient species status for the invasive strain. European Journal of Phycology 39: 83-92.
Musco, L., Andaloro, F., Mikac, B., Mirto, S., Vega Fernandez, T., & Badalamenti, F, (2014). Concern about the spread of the invader seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla (Chlorophyta: Caulerpales) towards the West Mediterranean. Mediterranean Marine Science 15(3): 532-538.
Nielsen, R. & Price, I.R. (2001). Typification of Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl) C. Agardh and C. taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Caulerpaceae). Taxon 50: 827-836.
Olsen, J.L., Valero, M., Meusnier, I., Boele-Bos, S. & Stam, W.T. (1998). Mediterranean Caulerpa taxifolia and C. mexicana (Chlorophyta) are not conspecific. Journal of Phycology 34: 850-856, 2 figs, 2 tables.
Pesando, D., Lemee, R., Ferrua, C., Amade, P. & Giraud, J.-P. (1996). Effects of caulerpenyne, the major toxin from Caulerpa taxifolia on mechanisms related to sea urchin egg cleavage. Aquat. Toxicol. 35: 139-155.
Phillips, J.A. & Price, I.R. (2002). How different is Mediterranean Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales: Chlorophyta) to other populations of the species?. Marine Ecology Progress Series 238: 61-71.
Phillips, J.A. (2009). Reproductive ecology of Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales) in subtropical eastern Australia. European Journal of Phycology 44(1): 81-88.
Sant, N., Delgado, O., Rodríguez-Prieto, C. & Ballesteros, E. (1996). The spreading of the introduced seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh in the Mediterranean Sea: testing the boat transportation hypothesis. Botanica Marina 39: 427-430.
Terrados, J. & Marba, N. (2006). Is the vegetative development of the invasive chlorophycean, Caulerpa taxifolia, favored in sediments with a high content of organic matter?. Botanica Marina 49: 331-338.
Thake, B., Herfort, L., Randone, M. & Hill, G. (2003). Susceptibility of the invasive seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia to ionic aluminium. Botanica Marina 46: 17-23.
Turan, G., Tekogul, H., Cirik, S. & Meinesz, A. (2011). First record of the invasive green seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales) on the coast of turkey. Cryptogamie Algologie 32(4): 379-382.
Vaugelas, J. de, Meinesz, A., Antolic, B., Ballesteros, E., Belsher, T., Cassar, N., Ceccherelli, G., Cinelli, F., Cottalorda, J.M., Fradaorestano, C., Grau, A.M., Jaklin, A., Morucci, C., Relini, M., Sandulli, R., Span, A., Tripaldi, G., van Klaveren, P., Zadovnik, N. & A. Zuljevic (1999). Standardization proposal for the mapping of Caulerpa taxifolia expansion in the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanologica Acta 22: 85-94.
Verlaque, M. & Fritayre, P. (1994). Modifications des communautés algales méditerranéennes en présence de l'algue envahissante Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh. Oceanologica Acta 17: 659-672, 12 figs, 5 tables. [in French, English abstract]
Zuljevic, A. & Antolic, B. (2000). Synchronous release of male gametes of Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea (Research Note). Phycologia 39: 157-159.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1413

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 December 2018.

SITE © 1996 - 2018 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio