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Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Codiaceae
Genus Codium

Pictures

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Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Cabo de Palos, Murcia, Spain. 19 Oct 2013. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Cabo de Palos, Murcia, Spain. 19 Oct 2013. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Valencia. 25 May 2014. Isabel Rubio Perez. © marmenormarmayor.es.

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland. 17 May 2011. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Zeeland delta, Netherlands. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva
Peggy's Cove, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

 

Leptosomia antarctica (Skottsberg)  Kylin

Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland
© M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) P.C.Silva 1955: 567

Published in: Silva, P.C. (1955). The dichotomous species of Codium in Britain. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 34: 565-577, 5 figs, 1 plate.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Codium is Codium tomentosum Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

Basionym
Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides Van Goor

Type information
Neotype locality: "Huisduinen, Netherlands, 1900, Mrs J. L. Redeke-Hoek (specimen not located). In the absence of the holotype, I have selected as neotype a specimen from Helder, Netherlands, annotated by van Goor, in the possession of Prof. J. Heimans, Hugo de Vries Laboratorium, Amsterdam." (Silva 1955: 568).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), fragile (Stearn 1973).

Synonym(s)
No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Taxonomic notes
Two supposedly introduced subspecies have been recognised in Britain and Ireland since Silva's (1955) study, viz, Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum (A.D. Cotton) P.C. Silva and C. fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goor) P.C. Silva. However, Maggs (in Brodie, Maggs & John 2007: 194) and Provan et al. (2008) have shown that the first is probably native, and the second, whilst introduced and invasive, is synonymous with C. fragile subsp. fragile. The degree of both genotypic variation reported (small) and phenotypic variation described (large) makes the described subspecies and varieties unsustainable and it would be better to recognise one variable species for all practical purposes. - (29 Dec 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
Silva (1979: 345) notes: "This alga, which is a weed in the sociological sense of a plant that grows rankly in unwanted places, has been introduced into San Francisco Bay within the last few years by some yet undetermined means... Although this subspecies was original described from the Netherlands (as an introduced plant), its original home probably is Japan (type locality for C. fragile), where it forms an undetectable part of the morphological and physiological spectrum encompassed by the highly variable parental species. ... Its weediness is due to its broad physiological tolerance and unusually great reproductive capacity. Wherever this weed has been studied, the populations have been shown to be solely female, with the female gametes capable of parthenogenic development. It thus comprises a single clone or at most a few clones."

South Australia and Victoria; should be regarded as serious pest (Womersley 2003: 499). - (18 Feb 2009) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Source of current name
Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Key references
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.

Burrows, E.M. (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. Chlorophyta. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-238, 60 figs, 9 pls. London: Natural History Museum Publications.

Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.

Lam, D.W. & Zechman, F.W. (2006). Phylogenetic analyses of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 42: 669-678.

Mathieson, A.C., Pederson, J.R., Neefus, C.D., Dawes, C.J. & Bray, T.L. (2008). Multiple assessments of introduced seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 730–741.. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65: 730-741, 5 figs.

Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.

Schmidt, A.L. & Scheibling, R.E. (2006). A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada.. Botanica Marina 49: 315-330.

Trowbridge, C.D. (1998). Ecology of the green macroalga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: invasive and non-invasive subspecies. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 36: 1-64.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 27871 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E. (2003). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina 46: 404-412.
Blunden, G., Fletcher, R.L., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). An unusual growth form of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subspecies tomentosoides (Goor) Silva found on floating structures in the Solent. British Phycological Journal 24: 299.
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.
Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.
Carlton, J.T. & Scanlon, J.A. (1985). Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina 28: 155-165.
Chapman, A.S. (1999). From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 277-289.
Churchill, A.C. & Moeller, H.W. (1972). Seasonal patterns of reproduction in New York. Population of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva.. Journal of Phycology 8: 147-152.
Dromgoole, F.I. (1975). Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 257-264.
Fletcher, R.L., Blunden, G., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). J Appl Phycol 1: 227-237.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia 11: 67-70.
Garbary, D.J., Vandermeulen, H. & Kim, K.Y. (1997). Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) Invades the Gulf of St Lawrence , Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 40: 537-540.
Griffin, R.L., Rogers, D.J., Spencer-Phillips, P.T. & Swain, L. (1995). Lectin from Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides conjugated to colloidal gold: a new histochemical reagent.. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 52: 225-227.
Hanisak, M.D. & Harlin, M.M. (1978). Uptake of inorganic nitrogen by Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 450-454, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Hanisak, M.D. (1979). Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on growth of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 15: 124-127.
Mathieson, A.C., Dawes, C.J., Harris, L.G. & Hehre, E.J. (2003). Expansion of the Asiatic green alga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine. Rhodora 105(921): 1-53.
Prince, J.S. (1988). Sexual reproduction in Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) from the northeast coast of North America. Journal of Phycology 24: 112-114.
Scheibling, R.E. & Melady, R.A. (2008). Effect of water movement and substratum type on vegetative recruitment of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Botanica Marina 51: 341-349.
Schmidt, A.L. & Scheibling, R.E. (2006). A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada.. Botanica Marina 49: 315-330.
Searles, R.B., Hommersand, M.H. & Amsler, C.D. (1984). The occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides and C. taylorii (Chlorophyta) in North Carolina. Botanica Marina 27: 185-187.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1995). Establishment of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on New Zealand rocky shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers. Journal of Ecology 83: 949-965.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 November 2018.

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