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Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Alariaceae
Genus Alaria

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Alaria esculenta, Spanish Point, Co. Clare, Ireland; worn plants in late summer. 28 Aug 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Alaria esculenta Clougher Strand, Co. Kerry, Ireland. 11 Aug 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Black Head, Co. Clare, Ireland; lower-shore plants. 28 Apr 2006. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; 2-3 m long plants at MLWS plants; modeled by Stefan Kraan. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; close-up of frond with mid-rib. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; close-up of frond with mid-rib. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; close-up of frond with mid-rib. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; fertile sporophylls; dark areas are zoosporangial sori. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; fertile sporophylls; dark areas are zoosporangial sori. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; fronds exposed at low water; 16-mm lens. 18 Apr 2003. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; fertile sporophylls
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville 1830: xxxix, 25

Published in: Greville, R.K. (1830). Algae britannicae, or descriptions of the marine and other inarticulated plants of the British islands, belonging to the order Algae; with plates illustrative of the genera. pp. [i*-iii*], [i]-lxxxviii, [1]-218, pl. 1-19. Edinburgh & London: McLachlan & Stewart; Baldwin & Cradock.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Alaria.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus esculentus Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: Atlantic Ocean (Widdowson 1971: 31). Lectotype: LINN 1274.63 (Widdowson 1971: 31).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), edible (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus esculentus Linnaeus 1767
Ceramium esculentum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1797
Musaefolia esculenta (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1809
Orgyia esculenta (Linnaeus) Stackhouse 1816
Laminaria esculenta (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1817
Phasgonon esculentum (Linnaeus) S.F.Gray 1821
Agarum esculentum (Linnaeus) Bory 1826
Podopteris esculentum (Linnaeus) De la Pylaie 1830

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Alaria esculenta var. noltei Rabenhorst
Fucus pinnatus Gunnerus 1766
Fucus teres Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus esculentus var. ß minor Turner 1802
Phasgonon esculentum var. minus S.F.Gray 1821
Laminaria polyphylla (S.G.Gmelin) Steudel 1824
Agarum delisei Bory 1826
Laminaria musaefolia Bachelot de la Pylaie 1830
Alaria delisei (Bory) Greville 1830
Laminaria musaefolia var. ß remotifolia Bachelot de la Pylaie 1830
Alaria esculenta f. latifolia Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Alaria esculenta f. polyphylla (S.G.Gmelin) Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Orgyia delisii (Bory) Trevisan 1845
Phasganon alatum Ruprecht 1850
Phasganon macropterum Ruprecht 1850
Alaria grandifolia J.Agardh 1872
Alaria musaefolia (Bachelot de la Pylaie) J.Agardh 1872
Orgyia pinnata Gobi 1878
Alaria esculenta f. australis Kjellman 1883
Alaria esculenta f. musaefolia (Pylaie) Kjellman 1883
Alaria dolichorhachis Kjellman 1883
Alaria esculenta f. fasciculata Strömfelt 1886
Alaria esculenta f. pinnata (Gobi) Foslie 1886
Alaria linearis Strömfelt 1886
Alaria esculenta var. pinnata (Gobi) Kjellman 1890
Alaria platyrhiza Kjellman 1906
Alaria macroptera (Ruprecht) Yendo 1919
Alaria dolichorhachis f. typica Miyabe & Nagai 1940

Distributional notes
Adams (1908: 106) noted that ‘it is noteworthy that [in Ireland] Alaria esculenta Grev., one of the large Laminarians, so common on the North and West coasts has not yet been found in the Dublin district’. - (22 Jun 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Irish common names are also often used for Laminaria saccharina.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville)
English: Bladderlocks, Daberlocks (Ohmi 1968), Edible Kelp, Honeyware, Wing Kelp, Bladderlochs, Tangle, Henware (Madlener 1977), Murlins (Anonymous 1978), Dabberlocks, Stringy Kelp (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Horsetail kelp (McConnaughey 1985).

French: Wakamé (Boisvert 1984).

Gaeilge: Fruill, Rufaí (Brennan 1950), Láracha, Láir bhán, Sraoilleach (Anonymous 1978), Láir (Anon. 2000).

German: Essebarer Riementang (Braune 2008).

Icelandic: Marinkjarni (Madlener 1977).

Japanese: Chigaiso (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
babberlocks {Eng}; bladder locks {Eng}; essbarer riementang {Ger}; alimentaire varech {Fr}; edible fucus {Eng}; "locks, bladder"; "fucus, edible"

Description
Plants with olive or yellow-brown fronds to 4 m long and 25 cm wide. Attached by a root-like holdfast at the base from which a narrow flexible stipe arises which continues into the leafy part of the plant as a distinct mid-rib. The reproductive structures, apparent as dark-brown areas, are confined to unbranched leafy appendages borne on the stipe, usually in two rows. This is the only kelp-like plant in Ireland and Britain with a distinct midrib and is the only one with sporangia borne at the base of the frond in special leaflets called sporophylls.

Habitat
Generally growing on rock in very exposed places, often forming a band at low water and in the shallow subtidal, but also occurring in tidal pools in the lower shore.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

De Toni, G.B. (1895). Sylloge algarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Vol. III. Fucoideae. Vol. 3 pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-638. Patavii [Padua]: Sumptibus auctoris.

Lane, C.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2005). Molecular investigation reveals epi/endophytic extrageneric kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes colonizing Lessoniopsis littoralis thalli. Botanica Marina 48: 426-436.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Widdowson, T.B. (1971). A taxonomic revision of the genus Alaria Greville. Syesis 4: 11-49.

Zinova, A.D. (1953). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Manual for identification of the brown algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-224. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 28552 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Bringloe, T.T., Bartlett, C.A.B., Bergeron, E.S., Cripps, K.S.A., Daigle, N.J., Gallagher, P.O., Gallant, A.D., Giberson, R.O.J., Greenough, S.J., Lamb, J.M., Leonard, T.W., Mackay, J.A., McKenzie, A.D., Persaud, S.M., Sheng, T., Mills, A.M.E.S., Moore, T.E. & Saunder, G.W. (2018). Detecting Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes in red algae, with consideration of distribution patterns in the intertidal zone. Phycologia 57(1): 1-8.
Buggeln, R.G. & Varangu, L.K. (1983). The cross-wing translocation pathway in the blade of Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Phycologia 22: 205-209, 6 figs.
Buggeln, R.G. (1974). Negative phototropism of the haptera of Alaria esculenta (Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 10: 80-82, 2 figs, 1 table.
Buggeln, R.G. (1974). Physiological investigations on Alaria esculenta (L.) Grev. (Laminariales) I. Elongation of the blade. Journal of Phycology 10: 283-288.
Buggeln, R.G. (1976). The rate of translocation in Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 12: 439-442.
Buggeln, R.G. (1977). Physiological investigations on Alaria esculenta (Lamniariales, Phaeophyceae) II. Role of translocation in blade growth. Journal of Phycology 13: 212-218.
Buggeln, R.G. (1978). Physiological investigations on Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). IV. Inorganic and organic nitrogen in the blade. Journal of Phycology 14: 156-160, 5 figs.
Buggeln, R.G. (1978). Physiological investigations on Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) III. Exudation by the blade. Journal of Phycology 14: 54-56.
Buggeln, R.G. (1981). Note: Source-sink relationship in the blade of Alaria esculenta (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 17: 102-104, 2 figs, 1 table.
Garbary, D.J. & Clarke, B. (2002). Intraplant variation in nuclear DNA content in Laminaria saccharina and Alaria esculenta (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 45: 211-216.
Han, T. & Kain (Jones), J.M. (1993). Note: Blue light photoreactivation in ultraviolet-irradiated young sporophytes of Alaria esculenta and Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 29: 79 -81, 3 figs, 1 table.
Han, T. (1994). Growth responses of early sporophytes of Alaria esculenta and Laminaria hyperborea to light qualities. Korean Journal of Phycology 9(1): 67-75, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Kraan, S. & Guiry, M.D. (2000). Molecular and morphological character inheritance in hybrids of Alaria esculenta and A. praelonga (Alariaceae, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 39: 554-559.
Kraan, S. & Guiry, M.D. (2001). Phase II: Strain hybridisation field experiments and genetic fingerprinting of the edible brown seaweed Alaria esculenta. Marine Resource Series [Ireland] 18: [i]-vi, 1-33.
Kraan, S., Rueness, J. & Guiry, M.D. (2001). Are North Atlantic Alaria esculenta and A. grandifolia (Alariaceae, Phaeophyceae) conspecific?. European Journal of Phycology 39: 35-42.
Kraan, S., Tramullas, A.V. & Guiry, M.D. (2000). The edible brown seaweed Alaria esculenta (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales): hybridization, growth and genetic comparisons of six Irish populations. Journal of Applied Phycology 12: 577-583.
Laycock, M.V. (1975). The amino acid sequence of cytochrome f from the brown alga Alaria esculenta (L.) Grev.. Biochem. J. 149: 271-279.
Minchin, D. (1992). Extensive grazing of the prosobranch Lacuna vincta (Montagu) on the kelp Alaria esculenta (L.) Grev.. Irish Naturalists' Journal 24: 171.
Munda, I.M. & Lüning, K. (1977). Growth performance of Alaria esculenta off Helgoland. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 29: 311-314.
Murúa, P., Küpper, F.C., Muñoz, L.A., Bernard, M. & Peters, A.F. (2018). Microspongium alariae in Alaria esculenta: a widely-distributed non-parasitic brown algal endophyte that shows cell modifications within its host. Botanica Marina 61(4): 343-354.
Sundene, O. (1962). The implications of transplant and culture experiments on the growth and distribution of Alaria esculenta. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk 9: 155-174.
Walton, A.J. (1986). Maturation of gametophytes of Alaria esculenta. British Phycological Journal 21: 338.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 November 2018.

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