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Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen

Publication details
Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen in Daugbjerg et al. 2000: 309

Published in: Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Karlodinium is Karlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine

Type information
Type locality: Hamoaze, over Rubble Bank, off King William Point, South Yard, Devonport, England (Bergholtz et al 2006: 189). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 44).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gymnodinium veneficum D.Ballantine 1956

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gymnodinium galatheanum Braarud 1957
Woloszynskia micra B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge 1966
Gymnodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) Loeblich III 1970
Gyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor 1992
Karlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen 2000

Usage notes
Produces karlotoxin, an agent responsible for fish kills ( Bachvaroff et al. 2009: 145, citing Deeds et al. 2002, 2006, Kempton et al. 2002). Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017). - (22 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bachvaroff, T.R., Adolf, J.E. & Place, A.R. (2009). Strain variation in Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae): toxin profiles, pigments, and growth characteristics. Journal of Phycology 45: 138-153.

Bergholtz, T., Daugbjerg, N., Moestrup, O. & Fernández-Tejedor, M. (2006). On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear encoded LSU rDNA and pigment composition. Journal of Phycology 42: 170-193.

Buchanan, J. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2018). Utility of molecular-assisted alpha taxonomy of the genus Cystophora (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) from New Zealand and Australia. Phycologia 57(4): 374-384.

Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Garces, E., Fernandez, M., Penna, A., Van Lenning, K., Gutierrez, A., Camp, J. & Zapata, M. (2006). Characterization of NW Mediterranean Karlodinium spp. (Dinophyceae) strains using morphological, molecular, chemical and physiological methodologies. Journal of Phycology 42: 1096-1112.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Siano, R., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Montresor, M. & Zingone, A. (2009). Unarmoured and thin-walled dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Naples, with the description of Woloszynskia cincta sp. nov. (Dinophyceae, Suessiales). Phycologia 48: 44-65.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 18 October 2018 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3835 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adolf, J.E., Bachvaroff, T.R. & Place, A.R. (2009). Environmental modulation of karlotoxin levels in strains of the cosmopolitan dinoflagellate, Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 45: 176-192.
Adolf, J.E., Place, A.R., Stoecker, D.K. & Harding L.W. Jr. (2007). Modulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in mixotrophic Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) and its prey, Storeatula major (Cryptophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 1259-1270.
Bachvaroff, T.R., Adolf, J.E. & Place, A.R. (2009). Strain variation in Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae): toxin profiles, pigments, and growth characteristics. Journal of Phycology 45: 138-153.
Bergholtz, T., Daugbjerg, N., Moestrup, O. & Fernández-Tejedor, M. (2006). On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear encoded LSU rDNA and pigment composition. Journal of Phycology 42: 170-193.
Park, T.-G., Kang, Y.-S., Park, Y.-T., Bae, H.-M. & Lee, Y. (2009). Detection of fish killing dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) in the East China Sea by real-time PCR. Algae 24(2): 105-110, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Park, T.-G., Ok, Y.-r., Park, Y.-T. & Lee, C.-K (2011). Temporal changes in the abundance of the fish-killing dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) in Tongyeong, Korea. Algae 26: 237-241.
Park, T.-G., Park, Y.-T. & Lee, Y. (2009). Development of a SYT09 based real-time PCR probe for detection and quantification of toxic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) in environmental samples. Phycologia 48: 32-43.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 April 2019.

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