152,691 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,809 images, 58,961 bibliographic items, 398,715 distributional records.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva


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Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
recolectada en la zona Habana-Matanzas. Hábito. Foto: Yusimí Alfonso..

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Barbados stamp Barbados stamp. 07 Apr 2013. © Barbados.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Low intertidal. Insert: habit (Peter the Great Bay, Russia).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Selce, northern Croatia. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Zeeland delta, Netherlands. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Scotland, Oban area east coast. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Dixon Island, Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada.. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Seppings Island, Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada.. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

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Myrionema mandoulii Sauvageau

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus Barbados stamp Barbados stamp

Publication details
Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753: 1163

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561-1200, [1-30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), lettuce (Lewis & Short 1890).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Phyllona lactuca (Linnaeus) F.H.Wiggers 1780
Monostroma lactuca (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva lactucaefolia S.F.Gray 1821
Ulva fenestrata Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Ulva crassa Kjellman 1877

Taxonomic notes
Cormaci, Furnari & Alongi (2014: 109) reject records of this entity from the Mediterranean Sea.

Lipkin & Silva (2002: 53, 54) record Ulva lactuca sensu lato nec Linnaeus, growing on Laurencia, from Entedebir Island, Dahlak Archipelago. They note that it is possible that the eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea plants may represent a separate species but add that the relationships between the different Ulva populations of this extensive region should be clarified before any new names are proposed. - (16 Jun 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Delnatte & Wynne (2016) note "The traditional concepts of Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca are being retained in this treatment. Brief notes appeared in Science (Holden 2007) and in Nature (Butler 2007) with preliminary results indicating that genome mapping conducted by C.Maggs and F.Mineur on the type of U. lactuca in the Linnean Herbarium revealed that the map matched that which was known for U. fasciata. An in-depth official publication of their results has not yet been published." - (20 Oct 2016) - M.D. Guiry

Habitat notes
Mid intertidal; sand; epilithic (Augyte and Shaughnessy, 2014). - (3 Dec 2014) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Crop and biofilter of fishpond effluents (Msuya & Neori 2010). - (8 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva lactuca Linnaeus)
?: Ihixlhewis, Gamgamet (Madlener 1977).

Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

Chinese: Hai Tsai, Shih shun, Haisai Kun-po, Kwanpo (Madlener 1977).

English: Sea lettuce, Lettuce laver, Green Laver, Sea Grass, Thin stone brick (Madlener 1977), Chicory sea lettuce (F.A.O. 1997).

French: Laitue de mer (Boisvert 1984).

German: Meersalat (Madlener 1977).

Japanese: Aosa (Madlener 1977).

Kwakwaka'wakw: Klop-tsai-yup (Madlener 1977).

Portuguese: Alface-do-mar (Oliveira, 1990).

Spanish: Luche, Luchi (Madlener 1977).

Swedish: Havssallat (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
green laver {Eng}; sea lettuce {Eng}; meerlattich {Ger}; laitue de mer {Fr}; "laver, green"; "laver, lettuce"; "lettuce, sea"

Type information
Type locality: "in Oceano" [Atlantic Ocean] (Linnaeus 1753: 1163). Lectotype: LINN 1275.24 Notes: According to Womersley (1984: 141) the type is from the west coast of Sweden. The type is marked "5" and agrees well with Linnaeus's description, and the number five is assigned to Ulva lactuca in Species plantarum (Papenfuss 1960).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Burrows, E.M. (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. Chlorophyta. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-238, 60 figs, 9 pls. London: Natural History Museum Publications.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Dawson, E.Y., Acleto, O.C. & Foldvik, N. (1964). The seaweeds of Peru. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 13: 1-111, 81 pls.

Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Joly, A.B. (1965). Flora marinha do litoral norte do estado de Saõ Paulo e regiões circunvizinhas. Boletim de Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, Universidade de São Paulo, Botânica 21: 5-393, 11 figs, 59 plates, maps 1 + A-C.

Kazi, M.A., Kavale, M.G. & Singh, V.V. (2016). Morphological and molecular characterization of Ulva chauguli sp. nov., U. lactuca and U. ohnoi (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Phycologia 55(1): 45-54.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. (2013). A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Loughnane, C.J., McIvor, L.M., Rindi, F., Stengel, D.B. & Guiry, M.D. (2008). Morphology, rbcL phylogeny and distribution of distromatic Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in Ireland and southern Britain. Phycologia 47: 416-429.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

O'Kelly, C.J., Kurihara, A., Shipley, T.C. & Sherwood, A.R. (2010). Molecular assessment of Ulva spp. (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Phycology 46(4): 728-735.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Scagel, R.F. (1957). An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). Bulletin, National Museum of Canada 150: [i]-vi, 1-289.

Shimada, S., Hiraoka, M., Nabata, S., Lima, M. & Masuda, M. (2003). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Japanese Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae), with special reference to the free-floating Ulva. Phycological Research 51(2): 99-108.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Vinogradova, K.L. (1974). Ulvovye vodorosli (Chlorophyta) morei SSSR [Ulvaceous algae (Chlorophyta) of the seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-165. Leningrad [St Petersburg]: Nauka. [in Russian]

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk. [in Russian]

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 February 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 96602 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aldon Coca, D., Juscamaita Morales, J. & Gil Kodaka, P. (2008). Aprovechamiento de la macroalga Ulva lactuca en la producción de bioabono líquido a través del porceso de ensilaje. ALGAS. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 39: 13 - 15.
Anderson, R. J., Monteiro, P. M. S. & Levitt, G. J. (1996). The effect of localised eutrophication on competition between Ulva lactuca (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) and a commercial resource of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariacea, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 291-296.
Bekheet, I. A., Kandil, K. M. & Shaban, N. Z. (1984). Studies on urease extracted from Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 580-583.
Bonneau, E.R. (1977). Polymorphic behavior of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in axenic culture. I. Occurrence of Enteromorpha-like plants in haploid clones. Journal of Phycology 13: 133-140.
Castellanos González, M.E.; Moreira González, A.R. & León Pérez, A.R. (2012). Caracterización fitoquímica de las macroalgas marinas Gracilaria caudata J. Agardh, Ulva lactuca L. y Ulva flexuosa subsp. flexuosa Wulfen de la bahía de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Algas, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 46: 4-8.
Chandler, M.T. & Vidaver, W.E. (1970). Photosynthetic oxygen induction transients in the alga Ulva lactuca L.. Phycologia 9: 133-142, 5 figs.
Cohen, I. & Neori, A. (1991). Ulva lactuca biofilters for marine fishpond effluents. 1. Ammonia uptake kinetics and nitrogen content. Botanica Marina 34: 475-482.
DeBusk, T.A., Blakeslee, M. & Ryther, J.H. (1986). Studies on outdoor cultivation of Ulva lactuca L.. Botanica Marina 29: 381-386.
Dizerbo, A.H. & Gilly, R. (1970). Un Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycees, Ulvaceae) de l'atoll de Clipperton (Pacifique nord). Revue Algologique, Nouvelle Serie 1: 90-91.
Enright, C.T. (1979). Competitive interaction between Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in Chondrus aquaculture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 209-218.
Fredersdorf, J. & Bischof, K. (2007). Irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation determines ultraviolet-susceptibility of photosynthesis in Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta)(Research note). Phycological Research 55(4): 295-301.
Föyn, B. (1955). Specific differences between northern and southern European populations of the green alga Ulva lactuca L.. Publ. Staz. Zool., Napoli 26: 261-270.
Gemmill, E.R. & Galloway, R.A. (1974). Photoassimilation of 14C-acetate by Ulva lactuca. Journal of Phycology 10: 359-366, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Giannotti, A.L. & McGlathery, K.J. (2001). Consumption of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) by the omnivorous mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say). Journal of Phycology 37: 209-215.
Han, T. (1996). Far-UV action on growth, pigmentation and photosynthesis of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Algae 11(2): 203-206, 2 figs, 3 tables.
Haq, Q.N. & Percival, E. (1966). Structural studies on the water-soluble polysaccharide from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca Part IV. Smith degradation. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 5: 261-269.
Harlin, M.M., Thorne-Miller, B. & Thursby, G.B. (1978). Ammonium uptake by Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in closed system fish culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 285-292.
Hawes, I. & Smith, R. (1995). Effect of current velocity on the detachment of thalli of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in a New Zealand estuary. Journal of Phycology 31: 875-880, 7 figs.
Haxo, F.T. & Clendenning, K.A. (1953). Photosynthesis and phototaxis in Ulva lactuca gametes. Biol. Bull. 105: 103-114.
Huang, X., Weber, J.C., Hinson, T.K., Mathieson, A.C. & Minocha, S.C. (1996). Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in the protoplasts and partially digested cells of Ulva lactuca L.(Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 39: 467-474.
Israel, A.A., Friedlander, M. & Neori, A. (1995). Biomass yield, photosynthesis and morphological expression of Ulva lactuca. Botanica Marina 38: 297-302, 9 figs, 1 table.
Kalita, T.L. & Titlyanov, E.A. (2013). Influence of temperature on the infradian growth rhythm in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 48(2): 210-220.
Kazi, M.A., Kavale, M.G. & Singh, V.V. (2016). Morphological and molecular characterization of Ulva chauguli sp. nov., U. lactuca and U. ohnoi (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Phycologia 55(1): 45-54.
Koch, E. W. (1993). The effect of water flow on photosynthetic processes of the alga Ulva lactuca L.. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 457-462.
Kylin, A. (1943). The influence of trace elements on the growth of Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 13: 108.
Kylin, A. (1945). The nitrogen sources and the influence of manganese on the nitrogen assimilation of Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 15: 1-9.
Kylin, A. (1946). The influence of some cations on Ulva lactuca, and a note on its nitrogen sources. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 16: 1-8.
Kylin, H. (1943). Über die ernährung von Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 13: 1-15.
Kylin, H. (1945). Weitere angaben über die ernährung von Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 15: 1-5.
Kylin, H. (1946). Über den Zuwachs der Keimlinge von Ulva lactuca in verschiedenen Nährflüssigheiten. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 16: 1-5.
Kylin, H. (1947). Über die Lebensdauer der Zygoten von Ulva lactuca. Kungl Fysiografiska Sällakapets i Lund Förhandlingar 17: 1-4.
Lahaye, M. & Jegou, D. (1993). Chemical and physical-chemical characteristics of dietary fibres from Ulva lactuca (L.) Thuret and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Grev.. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 195-200.
Lee, T.-M., Tsai, P.-F., Shyu, Y.-T. and Sheu, F. (2005). The effects of phosphite on phosphate starvation responses of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 975-982.
Levring, T. (1955). Some remarks on the structure of the gametes and the reproduction of Ulva lactuca. Botaniska Notiser 108(1): 40-45.
Li. L.C., Hsu, Y.T., Chang, H.L., Wu, T.M., Sung, M.S., Cho, C.L. & Lee, T.M. (2013). Polyamine effects on protein disulfide isomerase expression and implications for hypersalinity stress in the marine alga ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Journal of Phycology 49(6): 1181-1191.
Lubsch, A. & Timmermans, K. (2018). Uptake kinetics and storage capacity of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and corresponding N:P dynamics in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 54(2): 215-223.
Markager, S. & Sand-Jensen, K. (1990). Heterotrophic growth of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 670-673.
Medcalf, D.G., Lionel, T., Brannon, J.H. & Scott, J.R. (1975). Seasonal variation in the mucilaginous polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca. Botanica Marina 18: 67-70.
Melkonian, M. (1979). Structure and significance of cruciate flagellar root systems in green algae: zoospores of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 32: 425-435.
Melkonian, M. (1980). Flagellar apparatus, mating structure and gametic fusion in Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). British Phycological Journal 15: 196.
Micalef, H. & Gayral, P. (1972). Quelques aspects de l'infrastructure des cellules végétatives et des cellules reproductrices d'Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycée). Journal de Microscope 13: 417-428.
Micalef, H. (1970). Remarques préliminaires sur l'ultrastructure d'Ulva lactuca. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 15: 82.
Micalef, H. (1972). Mise en évidence de phosphatase acide dans l'appareil de Golgi des cellules végétatives d'Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 2481-2484.
Micalef, H. (1973). Exposé critique de résultats obtenus en microscopie électronique sur la cellule de l'Ulva lactuca L.. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 18: 58-64.
Micalef, H. (1980). L'organisation golgienne, vacuolaire et pariétale chez l'algue verte Ulva lactuca L. Caractérs de son eevolution au cours du cycle de reproduction. 105 Congrés national des Sociétés savantes, Caen 3: 249-260.
Msuya, F.E. & Neori, A. (2010). The performance of spray-irrigated Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) as a crop and as a biofilter of fishpond effluents (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(4): 813-817.
Murthy, M.S. & Sharma, C.L.N.S. (1989). Peroxidase activity in Ulva lactuca under dessication. Botanica Marina 32: 511-513.
Murthy, M.S., Rao, Y.N. & Faldu, P.J. (1988). Invertase and total amylase activities in Ulva lactuca from diffrent tidal levels, under desiccation. Botanica Marina 31: 53-56.
Neori, A., Cohen, I. & Gordin, H. (1991). Ulva lactuca biofilter for marine fish pond effluents. 2. Growth rate, yield and C/N ratio. Botanica Marina 34: 483-489.
Neori, A., Msuya, F.E., Shauli, L., Schuenhoff, A., Kopel, F. & Shpigel, M. (2003). A novel three-stage seaweed (Ulva lactuca) biofilter design for integrated mariculture. Journal of Applied Phycology 15: 543-553.
Niesenbaum, R.A. (1988). The ecology of sporulation by the macroalga Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae). Aquatic Botany 32: 155-166.
Pacheco-Ruíz, I., Zertuche-González, J.A., Chee-Barragán, A. & Arroyo-Ortega, E. (2002). Biomass and potential commercial utilization of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Ulvaceae) beds along the north-west coast of the Gulf of California (Research note). Phycologia 41: 199-201.
Peckol, P. & Putnam, A.B. (2017). Differntial toxic effects of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) on the herbivorous gastropods, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata (Mollusca). Journal of Phycology 53(2): 361-367.
Pedersen, M.F. (1994). Transient ammonium uptake in the macroalga Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): nature, regulation, and the consequences for choice of measuring technique. Journal of Phycology 30: 980-986, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Percival, E. (1964). Polysaccharides of the green seaweeds, Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha compressa. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 360-365.
Provasoli, L. & Pintner, I.J. (1980). Bacteria induced polymorphism in an axenic laboratory strain of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 196-201.
Provasoli, L. & Pinter, I. J. (1981). Bacteria-reduced polymorphism in an axenic laboratory strain of Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 231.
Provasoli, L. (1958). Effect of plant hormones on Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 22-23.
Rivers, J.S. & Peckol, P. (1995). Summer decline of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in a eutrophic embayment: interactive effects of temperature and nitrogen availability?. Journal of Phycology 31: 223-228, 6 figs, 1 table.
Ross, C. & Van Alstyne, K.L. (2007). Intraspecific variation in stress-induced hydrogen peroxide scavenging by the ulvoid macroalga Ulva lactuca. Journal of Phycology 43(3): 466-474, 8 figs, 1 table.
Sampaio, A.H., Rogers, D.J. & Barwell, C.J. (1998). Isolation and characterisation of the Lectin from the green marine alga Ulva lactuca L.. Botanica Marina 41: 427-433.
Steffensen, D.A. (1976). The effect of nutrient enrichment and temperature on the growth in culture of Ulva lactuca L.. Aquatic Botany 2: 337-351.
Suneson, S. (1943). Weitere Untersuchungen über wachtstumsfördernde Wirkung von Algenextrakten auf Ulva lactuca. Physiographiska Sällskapets Handlingar 13(20): 1-9.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 August 2018.

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