153,209 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,952 images, 59,247 bibliographic items, 409,075 distributional records.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
recolectada en la zona Habana-Matanzas. Hábito. Foto: Yusimí Alfonso..

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Barbados stamp Barbados stamp. 07 Apr 2013. © Barbados.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Low intertidal. Insert: habit (Peter the Great Bay, Russia).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Selce, northern Croatia. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Zeeland delta, Netherlands. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Scotland, Oban area east coast. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Dixon Island, Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada.. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Seppings Island, Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada.. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

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Bostrychia andoi Okamura

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus Selce, northern Croatia
© Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net)

Publication details
Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753: 1163

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561-1200, [1-30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), lettuce (Lewis & Short 1890).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Phyllona lactuca (Linnaeus) F.H.Wiggers 1780
Monostroma lactuca (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva lactucaefolia S.F.Gray 1821
Ulva fenestrata Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Ulva crassa Kjellman 1877

Taxonomic notes
Cormaci, Furnari & Alongi (2014: 109) reject records of this entity from the Mediterranean Sea.

Lipkin & Silva (2002: 53, 54) record Ulva lactuca sensu lato nec Linnaeus, growing on Laurencia, from Entedebir Island, Dahlak Archipelago. They note that it is possible that the eastern Mediterranean and Red Sea plants may represent a separate species but add that the relationships between the different Ulva populations of this extensive region should be clarified before any new names are proposed. - (16 Jun 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Delnatte & Wynne (2016) note "The traditional concepts of Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca are being retained in this treatment. Brief notes appeared in Science (Holden 2007) and in Nature (Butler 2007) with preliminary results indicating that genome mapping conducted by C.Maggs and F.Mineur on the type of U. lactuca in the Linnean Herbarium revealed that the map matched that which was known for U. fasciata. An in-depth official publication of their results has not yet been published." - (20 Oct 2016) - M.D. Guiry

Habitat notes
Mid intertidal; sand; epilithic (Augyte and Shaughnessy, 2014). - (3 Dec 2014) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Crop and biofilter of fishpond effluents (Msuya & Neori 2010). - (8 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva lactuca Linnaeus)
?: Ihixlhewis, Gamgamet (Madlener 1977).

Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

Chinese: Hai Tsai, Shih shun, Haisai Kun-po, Kwanpo (Madlener 1977).

English: Sea lettuce, Lettuce laver, Green Laver, Sea Grass, Thin stone brick (Madlener 1977), Chicory sea lettuce (F.A.O. 1997).

French: Laitue de mer (Boisvert 1984).

German: Meersalat (Madlener 1977).

Japanese: Aosa (Madlener 1977).

Kwakwaka'wakw: Klop-tsai-yup (Madlener 1977).

Portuguese: Alface-do-mar (Oliveira, 1990).

Spanish: Luche, Luchi (Madlener 1977).

Swedish: Havssallat (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
green laver {Eng}; sea lettuce {Eng}; meerlattich {Ger}; laitue de mer {Fr}; "laver, green"; "laver, lettuce"; "lettuce, sea"

Type information
Type locality: "in Oceano" [Atlantic Ocean] (Linnaeus 1753: 1163). Lectotype: LINN 1275.24 Notes: According to Womersley (1984: 141) the type is from the west coast of Sweden. The type is marked "5" and agrees well with Linnaeus's description, and the number five is assigned to Ulva lactuca in Species plantarum (Papenfuss 1960).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva lactuca Linnaeus)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen et al. 1999).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Burrows 1991, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2007, Loughnane et al. 2008, Kientz et al. 2011, Marconi et al. 2011, Flewelling et al. 2013, Brodie et al. 2016), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), Corsica (Gallardo et al. 1993), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Coppejans 1972, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Gallardo et al. 1993, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Hünken et al 2005), Greece (Diannelidis 1953, Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993, Christia et al. 2011), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000, Lam & Harder 2007), Ireland (Adams 1907, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971, Guiry 1977, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Whelan & Cullinane 1985, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Guiry 2012), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al. 2009, Lopes et al. 2011), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Spain (Miranda 1931, Miranda 1934, Seoane-Camba 1965, Gallardo et al. 1985, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova 1995), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1949, Tolstoy & Österlund 2003), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Aysel 2005, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980, John et al. 2004), Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Gough Island (Chamberlain 1965), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, John et al. 2004), St Helena (John et al. 2004), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), British Columbia (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Saunders & Kucera 2010), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Miller 2012, Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979, Van Patten 2009, Kraemer et al. 2017), Delaware (Madden et al. 2012), Florida (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974, Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Gulf of California (Setchell & Gardner 1924, Dawson 1944), Maine (Mathieson et al. 2001, Saunders & Kucera 2010, Field et al. 2018), Manitoba (Saunders & Kucera 2010, Saunders & McDevit 2013), Mexico (Castaneda-Fernández de Lara et al. 2010 ), Mississippi (Taylor 1960), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Mathieson & Dawes 2002, Hofman et al. 2010), Newfoundland (Taylor 1957), Nova Scotia (Scrosati 2016), Oregon (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Prince Edward Island (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Québec (Taylor 1957), Rhode Island (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Texas (Taylor 1960, Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013), Virginia (Madden et al. 2012), Washington (Hayden & Waaland 2004).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Costa Rica (Taylor 1945, Taylor 1960, Fernández-García et al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015, Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Islas Revillagigedo (Setchell & Gardner 1930, Taylor 1945), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2005), Panama (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Alabama (Taylor 1960), Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Taylor 1957, Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Jover Capote & Lake Barragán 2008, Castellanos González, Moreira González & León Pérez 2012, Gonzáles et al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2018), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce et al. 2015), Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Lourenço et al 2005, Castelar et al. 2009, Villaca et al. 2010, Moura 2010, Carvalho et al. 2017, Carvalho et al. 2017), Chile (Chapman & Chapman 1980, Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Leonardi et al 2006), Colombia (Taylor 1960), Ecuador (Taylor 1945), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945, Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Aldon Coca, Juscamaita Morales & Gil Kodaka 2008), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Howe 1931, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo et al. 1993, Bachir Bouiadjra et al. 2010), Angola (John et al. 2004), Benin (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Congo (John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993, Elrefaii et al. 2012, Issa et al. 2014), Egypt (Mediterranean) (Shabaka 2018), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Børgesen 1946, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004, John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Sudan (Papenfuss 1968, Osman & Mohammed 2016), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987), Western Sahara (John et al. 2004).

Indian Ocean Islands: Amsterdam Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Christmas Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Rodrigues Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, De Clerck et al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Abu Dhabi (John 2005), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed et al. 2008), Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Athiperumalsami et al. 2010, Suryanarayanan et al. 2010, Gupta 2012, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015, Rao & Gupta 2015, Rao & Gupta 2015, Kazi et al. 2016 ), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Iraq (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Papenfuss 1968, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Al-Yamani et al. 2014), Lebanon (Bitar et al. 2017 ), Oman (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Wynne 2018), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Shahnaz & Shameel 2007), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans et al. 2009), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Zou et al. 2007, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Titlyanov et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015), Japan (Yoshida 1998, Shimada et al. 2003, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Kamchatka (Vozzhinskaja 1965), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Bae 2010), Russia (Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014, Lee et al 2005, Anon. 2012, Li et al. 2013).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun et al. 2009), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham et al. 2011), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002, Tsutsui et al. 2005, Tien 2007, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Lord Howe Island (Lewis 1987, Millar & Kraft 1994, Kraft 2000, Kraft 2007), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Chapman 1956, Adams 1994, Adams 1997, Heesch et al. 2009 , Broady et al. 2012), Norfolk Island (Lewis 1987, Millar 1999), Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Huisman 2015).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Børgesen 1924, Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Jarvis I. & Kingman Reef (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), New Caledonia (Payri 2007).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: South Georgia (Wells, Brewin & Brickle 2011), South Shetland Islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002).

(as Ulva fenestrata Postels & Ruprecht)
Europe: Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel et al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), California (Scagel et al. 1989), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Washington (Scagel et al. 1989, Nelson, Nelson & Tjoelker 2003, Van Alstyne, Pelletreau & Rosario 2003, Van Alstyne, Pelletreau & Rosario 2003).

Africa: Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Kamchatka (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 2009, Klochkova, Korolyova & Kusidi 2009), Kurile Islands (Nagai 1940), Russia (Khotimchenko & Yakovleva 2004, Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Vietnam (Tien 2007).

(as Monostroma lactuca (Linnaeus) J.Agardh)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1907).

Key references
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Burrows, E.M. (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. Chlorophyta. pp. [i]-xi, [1]-238, 60 figs, 9 pls. London: Natural History Museum Publications.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Dawson, E.Y., Acleto, O.C. & Foldvik, N. (1964). The seaweeds of Peru. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 13: 1-111, 81 pls.

Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Joly, A.B. (1965). Flora marinha do litoral norte do estado de Saõ Paulo e regiões circunvizinhas. Boletim de Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, Universidade de São Paulo, Botânica 21: 5-393, 11 figs, 59 plates, maps 1 + A-C.

Kazi, M.A., Kavale, M.G. & Singh, V.V. (2016). Morphological and molecular characterization of Ulva chauguli sp. nov., U. lactuca and U. ohnoi (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Phycologia 55(1): 45-54.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. (2013). A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Loughnane, C.J., McIvor, L.M., Rindi, F., Stengel, D.B. & Guiry, M.D. (2008). Morphology, rbcL phylogeny and distribution of distromatic Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in Ireland and southern Britain. Phycologia 47: 416-429.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

O'Kelly, C.J., Kurihara, A., Shipley, T.C. & Sherwood, A.R. (2010). Molecular assessment of Ulva spp. (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Phycology 46(4): 728-735.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Scagel, R.F. (1957). An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). Bulletin, National Museum of Canada 150: [i]-vi, 1-289.

Shimada, S., Hiraoka, M., Nabata, S., Lima, M. & Masuda, M. (2003). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Japanese Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae), with special reference to the free-floating Ulva. Phycological Research 51(2): 99-108.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Vinogradova, K.L. (1974). Ulvovye vodorosli (Chlorophyta) morei SSSR [Ulvaceous algae (Chlorophyta) of the seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-165. Leningrad [St Petersburg]: Nauka. [in Russian]

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk. [in Russian]

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 February 2018 by M.D. Guiry

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Aldon Coca, D., Juscamaita Morales, J. & Gil Kodaka, P. (2008). Aprovechamiento de la macroalga Ulva lactuca en la producción de bioabono líquido a través del porceso de ensilaje. ALGAS. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 39: 13 - 15.
Anderson, R. J., Monteiro, P. M. S. & Levitt, G. J. (1996). The effect of localised eutrophication on competition between Ulva lactuca (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) and a commercial resource of Gracilaria verrucosa (Gracilariacea, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 291-296.
Bekheet, I. A., Kandil, K. M. & Shaban, N. Z. (1984). Studies on urease extracted from Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 580-583.
Bonneau, E.R. (1977). Polymorphic behavior of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in axenic culture. I. Occurrence of Enteromorpha-like plants in haploid clones. Journal of Phycology 13: 133-140.
Castellanos González, M.E.; Moreira González, A.R. & León Pérez, A.R. (2012). Caracterización fitoquímica de las macroalgas marinas Gracilaria caudata J. Agardh, Ulva lactuca L. y Ulva flexuosa subsp. flexuosa Wulfen de la bahía de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Algas, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 46: 4-8.
Chandler, M.T. & Vidaver, W.E. (1970). Photosynthetic oxygen induction transients in the alga Ulva lactuca L.. Phycologia 9: 133-142, 5 figs.
Cohen, I. & Neori, A. (1991). Ulva lactuca biofilters for marine fishpond effluents. 1. Ammonia uptake kinetics and nitrogen content. Botanica Marina 34: 475-482.
DeBusk, T.A., Blakeslee, M. & Ryther, J.H. (1986). Studies on outdoor cultivation of Ulva lactuca L.. Botanica Marina 29: 381-386.
Dizerbo, A.H. & Gilly, R. (1970). Un Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycees, Ulvaceae) de l'atoll de Clipperton (Pacifique nord). Revue Algologique, Nouvelle Serie 1: 90-91.
Enright, C.T. (1979). Competitive interaction between Chondrus crispus (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in Chondrus aquaculture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 209-218.
Fredersdorf, J. & Bischof, K. (2007). Irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation determines ultraviolet-susceptibility of photosynthesis in Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta)(Research note). Phycological Research 55(4): 295-301.
Föyn, B. (1955). Specific differences between northern and southern European populations of the green alga Ulva lactuca L.. Publ. Staz. Zool., Napoli 26: 261-270.
Gemmill, E.R. & Galloway, R.A. (1974). Photoassimilation of 14C-acetate by Ulva lactuca. Journal of Phycology 10: 359-366, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Giannotti, A.L. & McGlathery, K.J. (2001). Consumption of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) by the omnivorous mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say). Journal of Phycology 37: 209-215.
Han, T. (1996). Far-UV action on growth, pigmentation and photosynthesis of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Algae 11(2): 203-206, 2 figs, 3 tables.
Haq, Q.N. & Percival, E. (1966). Structural studies on the water-soluble polysaccharide from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca Part IV. Smith degradation. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 5: 261-269.
Harlin, M.M., Thorne-Miller, B. & Thursby, G.B. (1978). Ammonium uptake by Gracilaria sp. (Florideophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in closed system fish culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 285-292.
Hawes, I. & Smith, R. (1995). Effect of current velocity on the detachment of thalli of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in a New Zealand estuary. Journal of Phycology 31: 875-880, 7 figs.
Haxo, F.T. & Clendenning, K.A. (1953). Photosynthesis and phototaxis in Ulva lactuca gametes. Biol. Bull. 105: 103-114.
Huang, X., Weber, J.C., Hinson, T.K., Mathieson, A.C. & Minocha, S.C. (1996). Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in the protoplasts and partially digested cells of Ulva lactuca L.(Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 39: 467-474.
Israel, A.A., Friedlander, M. & Neori, A. (1995). Biomass yield, photosynthesis and morphological expression of Ulva lactuca. Botanica Marina 38: 297-302, 9 figs, 1 table.
Kalita, T.L. & Titlyanov, E.A. (2013). Influence of temperature on the infradian growth rhythm in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 48(2): 210-220.
Kazi, M.A., Kavale, M.G. & Singh, V.V. (2016). Morphological and molecular characterization of Ulva chauguli sp. nov., U. lactuca and U. ohnoi (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from India. Phycologia 55(1): 45-54.
Koch, E. W. (1993). The effect of water flow on photosynthetic processes of the alga Ulva lactuca L.. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 457-462.
Kylin, A. (1943). The influence of trace elements on the growth of Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 13: 108.
Kylin, A. (1945). The nitrogen sources and the influence of manganese on the nitrogen assimilation of Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 15: 1-9.
Kylin, A. (1946). The influence of some cations on Ulva lactuca, and a note on its nitrogen sources. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 16: 1-8.
Kylin, H. (1943). Über die ernährung von Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 13: 1-15.
Kylin, H. (1945). Weitere angaben über die ernährung von Ulva lactuca. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 15: 1-5.
Kylin, H. (1946). Über den Zuwachs der Keimlinge von Ulva lactuca in verschiedenen Nährflüssigheiten. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund. Förhanlingar 16: 1-5.
Kylin, H. (1947). Über die Lebensdauer der Zygoten von Ulva lactuca. Kungl Fysiografiska Sällakapets i Lund Förhandlingar 17: 1-4.
Lahaye, M. & Jegou, D. (1993). Chemical and physical-chemical characteristics of dietary fibres from Ulva lactuca (L.) Thuret and Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Grev.. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 195-200.
Lee, T.-M., Tsai, P.-F., Shyu, Y.-T. and Sheu, F. (2005). The effects of phosphite on phosphate starvation responses of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 41: 975-982.
Levring, T. (1955). Some remarks on the structure of the gametes and the reproduction of Ulva lactuca. Botaniska Notiser 108(1): 40-45.
Li. L.C., Hsu, Y.T., Chang, H.L., Wu, T.M., Sung, M.S., Cho, C.L. & Lee, T.M. (2013). Polyamine effects on protein disulfide isomerase expression and implications for hypersalinity stress in the marine alga ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Journal of Phycology 49(6): 1181-1191.
Lubsch, A. & Timmermans, K. (2018). Uptake kinetics and storage capacity of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and corresponding N:P dynamics in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 54(2): 215-223.
Markager, S. & Sand-Jensen, K. (1990). Heterotrophic growth of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 670-673.
Medcalf, D.G., Lionel, T., Brannon, J.H. & Scott, J.R. (1975). Seasonal variation in the mucilaginous polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca. Botanica Marina 18: 67-70.
Melkonian, M. (1979). Structure and significance of cruciate flagellar root systems in green algae: zoospores of Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 32: 425-435.
Melkonian, M. (1980). Flagellar apparatus, mating structure and gametic fusion in Ulva lactuca (Ulvales, Chlorophyceae). British Phycological Journal 15: 196.
Micalef, H. & Gayral, P. (1972). Quelques aspects de l'infrastructure des cellules végétatives et des cellules reproductrices d'Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycée). Journal de Microscope 13: 417-428.
Micalef, H. (1970). Remarques préliminaires sur l'ultrastructure d'Ulva lactuca. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 15: 82.
Micalef, H. (1972). Mise en évidence de phosphatase acide dans l'appareil de Golgi des cellules végétatives d'Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophycées, Ulvales). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 2481-2484.
Micalef, H. (1973). Exposé critique de résultats obtenus en microscopie électronique sur la cellule de l'Ulva lactuca L.. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 18: 58-64.
Micalef, H. (1980). L'organisation golgienne, vacuolaire et pariétale chez l'algue verte Ulva lactuca L. Caractérs de son eevolution au cours du cycle de reproduction. 105 Congrés national des Sociétés savantes, Caen 3: 249-260.
Msuya, F.E. & Neori, A. (2010). The performance of spray-irrigated Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) as a crop and as a biofilter of fishpond effluents (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(4): 813-817.
Murthy, M.S. & Sharma, C.L.N.S. (1989). Peroxidase activity in Ulva lactuca under dessication. Botanica Marina 32: 511-513.
Murthy, M.S., Rao, Y.N. & Faldu, P.J. (1988). Invertase and total amylase activities in Ulva lactuca from diffrent tidal levels, under desiccation. Botanica Marina 31: 53-56.
Neori, A., Cohen, I. & Gordin, H. (1991). Ulva lactuca biofilter for marine fish pond effluents. 2. Growth rate, yield and C/N ratio. Botanica Marina 34: 483-489.
Neori, A., Msuya, F.E., Shauli, L., Schuenhoff, A., Kopel, F. & Shpigel, M. (2003). A novel three-stage seaweed (Ulva lactuca) biofilter design for integrated mariculture. Journal of Applied Phycology 15: 543-553.
Niesenbaum, R.A. (1988). The ecology of sporulation by the macroalga Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyceae). Aquatic Botany 32: 155-166.
Pacheco-Ruíz, I., Zertuche-González, J.A., Chee-Barragán, A. & Arroyo-Ortega, E. (2002). Biomass and potential commercial utilization of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Ulvaceae) beds along the north-west coast of the Gulf of California (Research note). Phycologia 41: 199-201.
Peckol, P. & Putnam, A.B. (2017). Differntial toxic effects of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) on the herbivorous gastropods, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata (Mollusca). Journal of Phycology 53(2): 361-367.
Pedersen, M.F. (1994). Transient ammonium uptake in the macroalga Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): nature, regulation, and the consequences for choice of measuring technique. Journal of Phycology 30: 980-986, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Percival, E. (1964). Polysaccharides of the green seaweeds, Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha compressa. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 360-365.
Provasoli, L. & Pintner, I.J. (1980). Bacteria induced polymorphism in an axenic laboratory strain of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 196-201.
Provasoli, L. & Pinter, I. J. (1981). Bacteria-reduced polymorphism in an axenic laboratory strain of Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 231.
Provasoli, L. (1958). Effect of plant hormones on Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 22-23.
Rivers, J.S. & Peckol, P. (1995). Summer decline of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) in a eutrophic embayment: interactive effects of temperature and nitrogen availability?. Journal of Phycology 31: 223-228, 6 figs, 1 table.
Ross, C. & Van Alstyne, K.L. (2007). Intraspecific variation in stress-induced hydrogen peroxide scavenging by the ulvoid macroalga Ulva lactuca. Journal of Phycology 43(3): 466-474, 8 figs, 1 table.
Sampaio, A.H., Rogers, D.J. & Barwell, C.J. (1998). Isolation and characterisation of the Lectin from the green marine alga Ulva lactuca L.. Botanica Marina 41: 427-433.
Steffensen, D.A. (1976). The effect of nutrient enrichment and temperature on the growth in culture of Ulva lactuca L.. Aquatic Botany 2: 337-351.
Suneson, S. (1943). Weitere Untersuchungen über wachtstumsfördernde Wirkung von Algenextrakten auf Ulva lactuca. Physiographiska Sällskapets Handlingar 13(20): 1-9.
Svirski, E., Beer, S. & Friedlander, M. (1993). Gracilaria conferta and its epiphytes: (2) Interrelationship between the red seaweed and Ulva cf. lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 391-396.
Thuret, G. (1854). Note sur la synonymie des Ulva lactuca et latissima, L., suivie de quelques remarques sur la tribu des Ulvacées. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg 2: 17-32.
Tocher, C.S., Ackman, R.G. & McLachlan, J. (1966). The identification of dimethyl-B-propiothetin in the algae Syracosphaera carterae and Ulva lactuca. Can. J. Biochem. 44: 519-522.
Vermaat, J.E. & Sand-Jensen, K. (1987). Survival, metabolism and growth of Ulva lactuca under winter conditions: a laboratory study of bottlenecks in the life cycle. Marine Biology, Berlin 95: 55-61.
Webster, E.A. & Gadd, G.M. (1991). Cadmium uncouples respiration of Ulva lactuca. British Phycological Journal 26: 98.
Webster, E.A. & Gadd, G.M. (1992). The effect of heavy metals on the ionic composition of Ulva lactuca. British Phycological Journal 27: 102.
Wichard, T. & Oertel, W. (2010). Gametogenesis and gamete release of Ulva mutabilis and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): regulatory effects and chemical characterization of the "swarming inhibitor". Journal of Phycology 46(2): 248-259.
Zeroual, Y., Moutaouakkil, A., Dzairi, F.Z., Talbi, M., Chung, P.U., Lee, K. & Blaghen, M. (2003). Biosorption of mercury from aequeous solution by Ulva lactuca biomass. Bioresource Technology 90(3): 349-351.
Zou, D., Gao, K. & Ruan, Z. (2007). Daily timing of emersion and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration affect photosynthetic performance of the intertidal macroalga Ulva Lactuca (Chlorophyta) in sunlight. Botanica Marina 50: 275-279.
Zou, D., Gao, K., Xia, J., Xu, Z., Zhang, X. & Liu, S. (2007). Responses of dark respiration in the light to desiccation and temperature in the intertidal macroalga, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) during emersion. Phycologia 46(4): 363-370, 4 figs, 1 table.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 October 2018.

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