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Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F.Stein

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Prorocentrales
Family Prorocentraceae
Genus Prorocentrum


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Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F.Stein
© Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).


Publication details
Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) F.Stein 1878: 70

Published in: Stein, F. von (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. Die Naturgeschichte der Flagellaten oder Geisselinfusorien. I. Hälfte, Den noch nicht abgeschlossenen allgemeinen Theil nebst erklärung: Der sämmtlichen Abbildungen enthaltend. pp. i-x, 1-154, pls I-XXIV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Prorocentrum is Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Cryptomonas lima Ehrenberg

Type information
Type locality: Sorrento, Bay of Naples (Nagahama et al. 2011: 186). Lectotype: Ehrenberg 1873, fig. 25: (Nagahama et al. 2011: 186). Notes: Nagahama et al. (2011: 186) designate an epitype: Sorrento, Bay of Naples, Italy, 11 July 2004, Y. Nagahama, in Nagahama & Fukuyo 2005, fig. 2A.

Origin of species name
Noun (Latin), file (carpenter's tool).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Cryptomonas lima Ehrenberg 1860
Exuviaella lima (Ehrenberg) Bütschli 1885
Exuviaella marina var. lima (Ehrenberg) Schiller 1931
Prorocentrum marinum var. lima (Ehrenberg) Krachmalny 1993

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Exuviaella marina Cienkowski 1881
Dinopyxis laevis F.Stein 1883
Exuviaella laevis (Stein) Schroder 1900
Exuviaella cincta J.Schiller 1918
Exuviaella ostenfeldii Schiller 1933
Prorocentrum marinum (Cienkowski) Dodge & Bibby 1973
Prorocentrum marinum (Cienkowski) Loeblich III 1976
Prorocentrum arenarium M.A.Faust 1994

Nomenclatural notes
Parke & Dodge in Parke & Dixon (1976: 542), Faust (1990), Laza-Martinez et al. (2011) and Almazán-Becerril et al.(2015) cite the authority as (Ehrenberg) Dodge (1976). According to Nagahama et al. (2011: 185), the authority is (Ehrenberg) F. Stein 1878 and they emend the description. The two authorities are cited in INA. - (13 Apr 2011) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
References for the following records are given in Nagahama et al. (2011: 187): Italy; Germany; British Isles; French Polynesia, New Caledonia; Ryukyu Islands; Florida: Virgin Islands (UK); Thailand; Spain: Nova Scotia; Puerto Rico; France; Réunion Island; Mayotte Island; Comoros; New Zealand; Heron Island, Australia; Indonesia; Belize; Japan; Panama; Hawaiian Islands; Tasmania; Gulf of Maine; Cuba; Philippines; Europa Island; Mauritius; Argentina; Mexico; Gulf of St. Lawrence; Saipan Island; Bermuda; Tunisia; Malaysia; Greece; Italy; Costa Rica; Queensland. - (13 Apr 2011) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 61) notes this species is a known to produce a number of toxic substances, including, diarrhetic shellfish poison, prorocentrolide and fast-acting toxin. Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Emended by Nagahama et al. (2011:187).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Faust, M.A. (1990). Morphologic details of 6 benthic species of Prorocentrum (Pyrrophyta) from a mangrove island, Twin Cays, Belize, including 2 new species. Journal of Phycology 26(3): 548-558.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hoppenrath, M., Murray, S.A., Chomérat, N. & Horiguchi, T. (2014). Marine benthic dinoflagellates - unravelling their worldwide biodiversity. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe Vol. 54. pp. [1]-276. Frankfurt am Main & Stuttgar: V. Mosbrugger & E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Laza-Martinez, A., Orive, E. & Miguel, I. (2011). Morphological and genetic characterization of benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Coolia, Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum from the south-eastern Bay of Biscay. European Journal of Phycology 46(1): 45-65.

Nagahama, Y., Murray, S., Tomaru, A. & Fukuyo, Y. (2011). Species boundaries in the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae, Prorocentrales), based on morphological and phylogenetic characters. Journal of Phycology 47(1): 178-189.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Zhang, H., Li, Y., Cen, J., Wang, H., Cui, L., Dong, Y. & Lu, S. (2015). Morphotypes of Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea: morphological and molecular characterization. Phycologia 54(5): 503-516.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 31 August 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5578 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Barbier, M., Amzil, Z., Mondeguer, F., Bhaud, Y., Soyer-Gobillard, M.-O. & Lassus, P. (1999). Okadaic acid and PP2A cellular immunolocalization in Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 38: 41-46, 3 figs.
Faust, M.A. (1991). Morphology of ciguatera-causing Prorocentrum lima (Pyrrophyta) from widely differing sites. Journal of Phycology 27: 642-648, 9 figs, 1 table.
Holmes, M.J., Lee, F.C., Khoo, H.W. & Teo, S.L.M. (2001). Production of 7-deoxy-okadaic acid by a new Caledonian strain of Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 280-288.
López-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (1997). The genetic basis for lectin binding patterns in Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) (Research note). Phycologia 36: 406-409, 2 tables.
López-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (2000). The genetic basis for antibody binding patterns in Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) (Research Note). Phycologia 39: 160-162.
Maranda, L., Chan, C. & Martin, C. (1999). Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) in waters of the Great South Channel near Georges Bank (Note). Journal of Phycology 35: 1158-1161.
McLachlan, J.L., Boalch, G.T. & Jahn, R. (1997). Reinstatement of the genus Exuviaella (Dinophyceae, Prorocentrophycidae) and an assessment of Prorocentrum lima. Phycologia 36: 38-46, 3 figs.
Morton, S.L. & Tindall, D.R. (1995). Morphological and biochemical variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima isolated from three locations at Heron Island, Australia. Journal of Phycology 31: 914-921, 10 figs, 1 table.
Nagahama, Y., Murray, S., Tomaru, A. & Fukuyo, Y. (2011). Species boundaries in the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae, Prorocentrales), based on morphological and phylogenetic characters. Journal of Phycology 47(1): 178-189.
Vale, P., Veloso, V., Amorim, A. (2009). Toxin composition of a Prorocentrum lima strain isolated from the Portuguese coast. Toxicon 54: 145-152.
Zhang, H., Li, Y., Cen, J., Wang, H., Cui, L., Dong, Y. & Lu, S. (2015). Morphotypes of Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) from Hainan Island, South China Sea: morphological and molecular characterization. Phycologia 54(5): 503-516.
Zhou, J. & Fritz, L. (1993). Ultrastructure of two toxic marine dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum maculosum. Phycologia 32: 444-450, 18 figs.
Zhou, J. & Fritz, L. (1994). Okadaic acid antibody localizes to chloroplasts in the DSP- toxin-producing dinoflagellates Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum maculosum. Phycologia 33: 455-461, 14 figs.
Zhou, J. & Fritz, L. (1994). The PAS/accumulation bodies in Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum maculosum (Dinophyceae) are dinoflagellate lysosomes. Journal of Phycology 30: 39-44, 9 figs.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 June 2019.

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