163,347 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,769 images, 62,937 bibliographic items, 479,080 distributional records.

Gymnodinium F.Stein, 1878

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae

Lectotype species: Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein

Original publication:Stein, F. von (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. Die Naturgeschichte der Flagellaten oder Geisselinfusorien. I. Hälfte, Den noch nicht abgeschlossenen allgemeinen Theil nebst erklärung: Der sämmtlichen Abbildungen enthaltend. pp. i-x, 1-154, pls I-XXIV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Type designated in Chatton, E. (1912). Diagnose préliminaires de Péridiniens parasites nouveaux. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 37: 85-93, 8 figs.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kawai, H. & Nakayama, T. (2015). Introduction (Heterokontobionta p.p.), Cryptophyta, Dinophyta, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta (except Coscinodiscophyceae, Mediophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae), Chlorarachniophyta, Euglenophyta. In: Syllabus of plant families. Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Ed. 13. Phototrophic eukaryotic Algae. Glaucocystophyta, Cryptophyta, Dinophyta/Dinozoa, Haptophyta, Heterokontophyta/Ochrophyta, Chlorarachnniophyta/Cercozoa, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta p.p. (Frey, W. Eds), pp. 11-189. Stuttgart: Borntraeger Science Publishers.

Taxonomic notes
The genus description is as emended by G. Hansen & Moestrup (2000: 305). - (27 Jun 2014) - M.D. Guiry

Description: Small-to-large (about 5-200 µm) unicellular athecate flagellates of various shapes; globular to spindle-shaped, or dorsiventrally to laterally compressed. Some species form long-chained colonies, others enclosed in temporary hyaline cysts. Amphiesma smooth to rigid, may be striated or punctuated. Cells with well-developed cingulum and sulcus. Cingulum more or less equatorial, or located more anteriorly or more posteriorly, these species not clearly separated from Amphidinium Claparède and Lachmann or Katodinium Fott, respectively. Cingulum circular or slightly displaced, inclusion in Gyrodinium Kofoid and Swezy sometimes arbitrary. Sulcus running from cingulum to the antapex, sometimes notching it but sometimes fading earlier. Sulcus may extend to the epicone and even encircle the apex. Chloroplasts present or absent. Nutrition phototrophic, phagotrophic, or myzocytotic which may result in acquisition of "kleptochloroplasts". Species with endosymbionts or remnants of chrysophycean-like or cryptophycean chloroplasts known. Some species have a stigma, others have trichocysts. Pusules may be very elaborate. Vegetative reproduction by binary fission; sexual reproduction and production of planozygotes with 2 longitudinal and 2 transverse flagella which later may form hypnozygotes acting as resting cysts. Cosmopolitan, freshwater, brackish and marine plankton, and benthos; some species sand-dwelling, others in snow and ice, also endosymbiotic species. Emend. Hansen & Moestrup (2000: 305).

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 22 Mar 2021 by M.D. Guiry.

Characters considered diagnostic of Gymnodinium: Some.

Characters considered diagnostic of higher taxonomic ranks known/presumed to occur in all species of Gymnodinium: Some.

Generic synonyms: None.

Comments: Bloom-forming species can produce extensive red tides which may cause oxygen deficiency in bottom waters. Blooms of toxic species of economic significance. Some produce very potent toxins, some as aerosols, also harmful to man. Other species produce unusual sterols. Planktonic species may show vertical migration, phototaxis, and swimming speeds may reach 1 m h-1. Chemosensitive species known. Transport of some species apparently in tanks of commercial ships from Japan to Tasmania and Spain may explain the recent occurrence of G. catenatum in these waters.

Numbers of names and species: There are 487 species names in the database at present, as well as 35 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 306 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

Popovsky, J. & Pfiester, L.A. (1990). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Vol. 6. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellida). pp. 1-272. Jena & Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Carty, S. (2003). Dinoflagellates. In: Freshwater Algae of North America, Ecology and Classification. (Wehr, J.D. & Sheath, R.G. Eds), pp. 685-714. San Diego: Academic Press.

Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 22 March 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43632

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 September 2021.

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