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158,879 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,385 images, 61,551 bibliographic items, 457,090 distributional records.

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein 1878

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae
Genus Gymnodinium

Pictures

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Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC. 09 Apr 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC. 09 Apr 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.

 

Corynospora multifida (Hudson) P.Crouan & H.Crouan

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC
© Karl Bruun

Publication details
Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein 1878: 95

Published in: Stein, F. von (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. Die Naturgeschichte der Flagellaten oder Geisselinfusorien. I. Hälfte, Den noch nicht abgeschlossenen allgemeinen Theil nebst erklärung: Der sämmtlichen Abbildungen enthaltend. pp. i-x, 1-154, pls I-XXIV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Gymnodinium.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Peridinium fuscum Ehrenberg

Type information
Type locality: bei Berlin zwischen Conferven (Index Nominum Algarum). Type: 4. Mai 1832; see above. (Index Nominum Algarum

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), a sombre brown, but often used to indicate darkness of colour (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Peridinium fuscum Ehrenberg 1834

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Rhizodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Loeblich Jr. & Loeblich III 1968
Cystodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Bourrelly 1970
Gymnodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Bourrelly 1970

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Carty, S. (2014). Freshwater dinoflagellates of North America. pp. [i]-viii, [2], [1]-260, 153 figs. Ithaca & London: Comstock Publishing Associates. A division of Cornell University Press.

Dillard, G.E. (2007). Freshwater algae of the southeastern United States Part 8. Chrysophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Dinophyceae. Bibliotheca Phycologica 112: [i-vi], 1-127, 22 pls.

Flø Jørgesen, M., Murray, S. and Daugbjerg, N. (2004). Amphidinium revisited. I. Redefinition of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae) based on cladistic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Phycology 40: 351-365, 6 Figs.

Hansen, G. & Flaim, G. (2007). Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy. Journal of Limnology 66: 107-141.

Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K.R. (2001 '2000'). Light and electron microscopical observations on the type species of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 39: 365-376.

Hoppenrath, M. & Leander, B.S. (2007). Character evolution in polykrikoid dinoflagellates. Journal of Phycology 43(2): 366-377, 5 figs, 2 tables.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lewis, J.M. & Dodge, J.D. (2011). Dinophyta (Dinoflagellates). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 250-274. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Moestrup, Ø. & Calado, A.J. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Volume 6: Dinophyceae. pp. [i]-xii, [1]-560, 421 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Popovsky, J. & Pfiester, L.A. (1990). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Vol. 6. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellida). pp. 1-272. Jena & Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Schiller, J. (1932). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 257-432. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.

Schilling, A.J. (1913). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Die Süsswasser-Flora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Heft 3. (Pascher, A. Eds), pp. [1]-iv, 1-66. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Thessen, A.E., Patterson, D.J. & Murray, S.A. (2012). The taxonomic significance of species that have only been observed once: The genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an example. PLoS ONE 7(8): e44015.

Thompson, R.H. (1947). Fresh-water dinoflagellates of Maryland. Contributions from the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 67: 3-24.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 April 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5080 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Dodge, J.D. & Crawford, R.M. (1969). The fine structure of Gymnodinium fuscum (Dinophyceae). New Phytologist 68: 613-618.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K.R. (2001 '2000'). Light and electron microscopical observations on the type species of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 39: 365-376.
Romeikat, C., Knechtel, J. & Gottschling, M. (2019). Clarifying the taxonomy of Gymnodinium fuscum var. rubrum from Bavaria (Germany) and placing it in a molecular phylogeny of the Gymnodiniaceae (Dinophyceae). Systematics and Biodiversity 18(2): 102-115, 43 fig.

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Citing AlgaeBase
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 August 2020.

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