Holotype species: Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg
Original publication and holotype designation: Ehrenberg, C.G. (1834). Dritter Beitrag zur Erkenntniss grosser Organisation in der Richtung des kleinsten Raumes. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1833: 145-336, pls I-XIII.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Moestrup, Ø. & Calado, A.J. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Volume 6: Dinophyceae. pp. [i]-xii, -560, 421 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.
Monotypic when first introduced. - (30 Jan 2017) - M.D. Guiry
Description: Small to medium-sized (15-100 µm) bilateral thecate flagellates with 2 apical heterodynamic flagella. Shape globular, lanceolate or sigmoid. Theca composed mainly of 2 valves which may be smooth, with pores or spines. In the flagellar region are an additional 7-14 small plates - one may have a larger spine - forming 2 pores. Both flagella emerge from one pore. All species phototrophic with 1-2 chloroplasts. In some species a microtubular basket is present in the apical region which is correlated to particular food uptake, but so far there is no report on phagocytosis. Sexual reproduction not by plasmogamy; haploid isogametes form a fertilization tube through which the nucleus of the male gamete is injected into the plasma of the female gamete. The diploid planozygote replicates its DNA, becoming tetraploid. Two successive meiotic divisions results in tetrads of haploid vegetative cells. Cyst formation of benthic species known. Marine, brackish waters, worldwide. Two freshwater species known only from Australia. Planktonic, epiphytic, benthic, some species sand-dwelling. Some species form large blooms, discoloring the sea. Some species produce toxins which may harm man. P. lima and related species are associated with ciguatera and have been shown to contain ocadaic acid; some populations of P. minimum are related to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.
Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 26 Oct 2018 by M.D. Guiry.
Numbers of names and species: There are 121 species names in the database at present, as well as 8 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 78 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
McMinn, A. & Scott, F.J. (2005). Dinoflagellates. In: Antarctic marine protists. (Scott, F.J. & Marchant, H.J. Eds), pp. 202-250. Canberra & Hobart: Australian Biological Resources Study; Australian Antarctic Division.
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.
Laza-Martinez, A., Orive, E. & Miguel, I. (2011). Morphological and genetic characterization of benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Coolia, Ostreopsis and Prorocentrum from the south-eastern Bay of Biscay. European Journal of Phycology 46(1): 45-65.
Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 26 October 2018 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43640
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 07 August 2020.