163,909 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,101 bibliographic items, 484,276 distributional records.

Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg 1834

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Prorocentrales
Family Prorocentraceae
Genus Prorocentrum


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Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg
Bahía de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. 13 Jul 2011. Liliana Gomez Luna. © Liliana Gomez Luna (lilianag@cnea.uo.edu.cu) .

Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg
© Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).


Fucus vesiculosus var. laterifructus Greville

Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg Bahía de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
© Liliana Gomez Luna (lilianag@cnea.uo.edu.cu)

Publication details
Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg 1834: 307

Published in: Ehrenberg, C.G. (1834). Beiträge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. 1. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Physikalische Klasse 1832(1): 225-380.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Prorocentrum.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: "Ostseewasser aus Kiel" [Baltic Sea, near Kiel, Germany] (Ehrenberg 1834: 307). Lectotype (fide Jahn & Kusber, 2005): Epitypification in Tillmann et al., 2019: 427, 428CEDiT2018E87 [SEM stub]; Baltic Sea off Germany, Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Oct. 20, 2017: K.J.S. Meier [U.Tillmann] (epitype) Ehrenberg; 25.xi.1832; BHUPM Preparation No. 540164-1 (Index Nominum Algarum Notes: Kusber, Elbrächter & Jahn (2005: 206) write: "In 1830 and 1832 Ehrenberg performed experiments in Berlin with water samples from the Baltic Sea, sent by Dr Michaelis (Ehrenberg 1835: 536-537). Lectotype: "Although there are only a few taxonomic preparations prior to 1835 in the Ehrenberg collection, we assume that preparation No. 540164-1 was in Ehrenberg’s hand when describing P. micans. “Meeresleuchten”, i.e. bioluminescence, was a major topic at that time, hence he deposited a voucher of his 1832 findings." (Kusber, Elbrächter & Jahn 2005: 206).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Prorocentrum schilleri Böhrn 1931
Prorocentrum levantinoides Bursa 1959
Prorocentrum pacificum Wood 1963

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 64) notes this species is capable of forming blooms, it is usually considered harmless. It may excrete substances that inhibit diatom growth. Recent incidents involving shellfish mortality have been attributed to oxygen depletion. Please consult original reference for further details.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Gottschling, M., Knop, R., Plötner, J., Kirsch, M., Willems, H. & Keupp, H. (2005). A molecular phylogeny of Scrippsiella sensu lato (Calciodinellaceae, Dinophyta) with interpretations on morphology and distribution. European Journal of Phycology 40: 207-220.

Kim, S. (2006). Patterns in host range for two strains of Amoebophyra (Dinophyta) infecting thecate dinoflagellates: Amoebophyra spp. ex Alexandrium affine and ex Gonyaulax polygramma (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1170-1173.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Kusber, W.-H., Elbrächter, M. & Jahn, R. (2006). Algae of the Ehrenberg collection - 2. The type specimens of two dinoflagellate names published by C. G. Ehrenberg. Willdenowia 35: 205-210, 9 figs.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lin, S., Zhang, H. & Jiao, N. (2006). Potential utility of mitochondrial cytochrome b and its mRNA editing in resolving closely related dinoflagellates: a case study of Prorocentrum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 646-654.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Schiller, J. (1931). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 1-256. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.

Sournia, A. (1986). Atlas du phytoplancton marin. Volume I: Cyanophycées, Dictyophycées, Dinophycées, Raphidophycées. pp. [1]-219. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 15, quai Anatole France - 75700 Paris.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Taylor, F.J.R. (1976). Dinoflagellates from the International Indian Ocean Expedition: A report on material collected by the R.V. "Anton Bruun". Bibliotheca Botanica 132: 1-234, 46 pls, 5 charts, 5 tables.

Tillmann, U., Hoppenrath, M. & Gottschling, M. (2019). Reliable determination of Prorocentrum micans Ehrenb. (Prorocentrales, Dinophyceae) based on newly collected material from the type locality. European Journal of Phycology 54(3): 417-431.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Created: 02 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 22 November 2019 by G.M. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 10436 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

?rachmalny, A.F. & L.M. Terenko (2002). New form of Prorocentrum micans Ehr. (Prorocentrales, Dinophyta) from the plankton of the Black Sea (Ukraine). Algologia 12(4): 476-480, 4 fig., 1 table.
Braarud, T. & Rossavik, E. (1951). Observations on the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenb. in culture. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi I Oslo I. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse 1951 1951(1): 1-18.
Cohen-Fernandez, E.J., Del Castillo, E.M., Ugarte, I.H.S. & Pedroche, F.F. (2006). Contribution of external morphology in solving a species complex: The case of Prorocentrum micans, Prorocentrum gracile and Prorocentrum sigmoides (Dinoflagellata) from the Mexican Pacific Coast. Phycological Research 54(4): 330-340.
Hana, M.-S., Wanga, P., Kima, J.H., Choa, S.Y., Park, B.S., Kima, J.H., Katano, T. & Kima, B.-H. (2016). Morphological and molecular phylogenetic position of Prorocentrum micans sensu stricto and description of Prorocentrum koreanum sp. nov. from southern coastal waters in Korea and Japan. 167: 32–50, figs 1-10, 4 tables.
Heimann, K., Roberts, K.R. & Wetherbee, R. (1995). Flagellar apparatus transformation and development in Prorocentrum micans and P. minimum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 34: 323-335, 52 figs.
Jin, Q., Dong, S. & Wang, C. 2005 (2005). Allelopathic growth inhibition of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta) by Ulva pertusa and Ulva linza (Chlorophyta) in laboratory cultures. European Journal of Phycology 40: 31-37.
Lage, O.M., Parente, A.M., Soares, H.M.V.M., Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. & Salema, R. (1994). Some effects of copper on the dinoflagellates Amphidinium carterae and Prorocentrum micans in batch culture. European Journal of Phycology 29: 253-260, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Lage, O.M., Parente, A.M., Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D., Gomes, C.A.R. & Salema, R. (1996). Potential tolerance mechanisms of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyceae) to sublethal levels of copper. Journal of Phycology 32: 416-423, 6 figs, 1 table.
Lee, K.H., Jeong, H.J., Kim, H.J. & Lim, A.S. (2017). Nitrate uptake of the red tide dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans measured using a nutrient repletion method: effect of light intensity. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(2): 139-153.
Lembeye, G. & Campodonico, I. (1984). First recorded bloom of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehr. in South -Central Chile. Botanica Marina 27: 491-493.
Minier, C., Galgani, F. & Robert, J.M. (1993). In vivo characterization of esterase activity in Calothrix PCC 7601, Haslea ostrearia and Prorocentrum micans. Botanica Marina 36: 245-252, 5 figs, 1 table.
Pybus, C. (1990). Blooms of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta) in the Galway Bay area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 70(4): 697-705.
Roberts, K.R., Heimann, K. & Wetherbee, R. (1995). The flagellar apparatus and canal structure in Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 34: 313-322, 34 figs.
Shankle, A.M., Mayali, X. & Franks, P.J.S. (2004). Temporal patterns in population genetic diversity of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 239-247.
Tillmann, U., Hoppenrath, M. & Gottschling, M. (2019). Reliable determination of Prorocentrum micans Ehrenb. (Prorocentrales, Dinophyceae) based on newly collected material from the type locality. European Journal of Phycology 54(3): 417-431.
Uchida, T. (1981). The relationships between Prorocentrum micans-growth and its ecological environment. Scientific Papers of the Institute of Algological Research, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido Imperial University 7(1): 17-79.

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G.M. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 October 2021.

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