Gymnodinium biciliatum Ohno 1911
Gymnodinium biciliatum Ohno 1911: 91, pl. I
Published in: Ohno, N. (1911). Beobachtungen an einer Süsswasser Peridinee. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 32: 77-92, 1 pl..
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Woloszynskia biciliata (Ohno) Stosch 1973
Moestrup & Calado (2018: 471-472) note: "Epi- and hypocone of almost the same length. Cingulum barely descending. With two longitudinal flagella. Cell length 21-25 µm, width 15-21 µm. Cysts often with spines. In spring near Tokyo, Japan. Cells positively phototactic. No information was provided about cell contents, but water containing large numbers of cells was described to be reddish-brown. Sexual reproduction was not known in dinoflagellates at the time of Ohno's description, and he was therefore unaware that the cells he described and illustrated were planozygotes, formed by fusion of motile gametes. Such planozygotes have now been observed in many species of dinoflagellates. Some of the zygotes found by him, e. g. his fig. 21, appear to belong to the Tovelliaceae, as similar cysts are known to occur in Tovellia and Opisthoaulax. However, cyst-formation observed by Ohno resulted in cysts without spines and the spiny cysts he describes may therefore belong to different species. Bicudo & Skvortsov (1970), in material from Brazil, found cells that they identified as Gymnodinium biciliatum and having a single longitudinal flagellum. The cell illustrated (Bicudo & Skvortsov 1970, fig. 1) has few characters in common with the Japanese material. It is very uncertain which species Ohno was describing, and we consider this taxon as unidentifiable." - (31 Aug 2020) - M.D. Guiry
This is a freshwater species.
Schiller, J. (1932). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 257-432. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.
Thessen, A.E., Patterson, D.J. & Murray, S.A. (2012). The taxonomic significance of species that have only been observed once: The genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an example. PLoS ONE 7(8): e44015.
Created: 23 October 2009 by Meadhbh Moriarty
Verified by: 31 August 2020 by M.D. Guiry
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 September 2020.