161,005 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,719 images, 62,625 bibliographic items, 473,224 distributional records.

Euglena gracilis G.A.Klebs 1883

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Eozoa
Infrakingdom Infrakingdom Euglenozoa
Phylum Euglenozoa
Infraphylum Dipilida
Class Euglenophyceae
Subclass Euglenophycidae
Order Euglenida
Family Euglenidae
Subfamily Eugleninae
Genus Euglena

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Euglena gracilis G.A.Klebs
Kingston, Washington, USA; golf course, 1000x, DIC. 06 May 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

 

Euglena gracilis G.A.Klebs Kingston, Washington, USA; golf course, 1000x, DIC
© Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net)

Publication details
Euglena gracilis G.A.Klebs 1883: 303, pl. III [3]: fig. 11

Published in: Klebs, G. (1883). Über die Organisation einiger Flagellatengruppen und ihre Beziehungen zu Algen und Infusorien. Untersuchungen aus dem Botanischen Institut zu Tübingen 1: 233-362, pls II, III.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Euglena is Euglena viridis (O.F.Müller) Ehrenberg.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), thin, slender (Stearn 1973).

Synonym(s)
No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Fiol, D.F. & Salerno, G.L. (2005). Trehalose synthesis in Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae) occurs though and enzyme complex. Journal of Phycology 41: 812-818.

Gojdics, M. (1953). The genus Euglena. pp. [i]-viii, [1]-268, 39 pls. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Harvey, A.S. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1995). An account of Austrolithon intumescens gen. et. sp. nov. and Boreolithon van-heurckii (Heydrich) gen. et. comb. nov. (Austrolithoideae subfam. nov., Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 34: 362-382.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Lemmermann, E. (1913). Flagellatae II. Eugleninae. In: Die Süsswasserflora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Heft 2. (Pascher, A. & Lemmermann, E. Eds), pp. 115-174. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Monfils, A.K., Triemer, R.E. & Bellairs, E.F. (2011). Characterization of paramylon morphological diversity in photosynthetic euglenoids (Euglenales, Euglenophytaa). Phycologia 50(2): 156-169.

Nudelman, M.A., Rossi, M.S., Conforti, V. & Triemer, R.E. (2003). Phylogeny of Euglenophyceae based on small subunit rDNA sequences: taxonomic implications. Journal of Phycology 39: 226-235.

Popova, T.G. (1966). Flora plantarum cryptogamarum URSS. Vol VIII. Euglenophyta. Fasc. 1 Gen. Trachelomonas, Strombomonas, Eutreptia, Euglena. pp. [1]-410 [-412]. Mosqua & Leningrad: Uzdatek'stvo "NAUKA".

Rocchetta, I., Leonardi, P.I., Amado Filho, G.M., Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, M. & Conforti, V. (2007). Ultrastructure and X-ray microanalysis of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) under chromium stress. Phycologia 46(3): 300-306, 20 figs.

Skuja, H. (1948). Taxonomie des Phytoplanktons einiger Seen in Uppland, Schweden. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 9(3): 1-399, 39 pls.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Starmach, K. (1983). Euglenophyta - Eugleniny Vol. 3 Flora s?odkowodna polski [Euglenophyta Volume 3 Freshwater fora of Poland]. pp. [1]-594. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. [in Polish]

Toepel, J., Langner, U. & Wilhelm, C. (2005). Combination of flow cytometry and single cell absorption spectroscopy to study the phytoplankton structure and to calculate the chl a specific absorption coefficients at the taxon level. Journal of Phycology 41(6): 1099-1109.

Wołowski, K, & Hindák, F. (2005). Atlas of Euglenophytes. pp. [1]-136, 417 figs. Cracow: VEDA Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Wołowski, K. (1998). Taxonomic and environmental studies on euglenophytes of the Kraków-Czestochowa Upland (Southern Poland). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Supplementum 6: 1-192, 29 pls.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 March 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 12498 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aaronson, S. & Bensky, B. (1962). O-methylthreonine, a new bleaching agent for Euglena gracilis. Journal of General Microbiology 27: 75-98.
Adams, K.J. (1973). Characterisation of a cell division commitment threshold in the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis. British Phycological Journal 8: 204.
Balzer, I. & Hardeland, R. (1991). Differential light effects on the dark motility rhythm in Euglena gracilis by series of short light pulses: induction of long-term fluctuations and holding of the circadian oscillator. Int J Biometeorol 34(4): 235-238.
Barsanti, L., Vismara, R., Passarelli, V. & Gualtieri, P. (2001). Paramylon (Beta-1,3-glucan) content in wild type and WZSL mutant of Euglena gracilis: effects of growth conditions. J. Appl. Phycol. 13: 59-65.
Bennett, M.S., Wiegart, K.E. & Triemer, R.E. (2012). Comparative chloroplast genomics between Euglena viridis and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta). Phycologia 51(6): 711-718.
Boasson, R. & Gibbs, S.P. (1973). Chloroplast replication in synchronously dividing Euglena gracilis. Planta 115: 125-134.
Bäumer, D., Preisfeld, A. & Georg Ruppel, H. (2001). Isolation and characterization of paramylon snythase from Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 38-46.
Chadefaud, M. & Provasoli, L. (1939). Une nouvelle Euglene graciloide: Euglena gracilis Klebs var. uroophora n. var. Arch. Zool. Exper. Gén. 80: 55-60.
Chisholm, S.W. & Stross, R.G. (1976). Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) grown in light/dark cycles. II. Phased PO4- limited cultures. Journal of Phycology 12: 217-222, 5 figs.
Chisholm, S.W. & Stross, R.G. (1976). Phosphate uptake kinetics in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) grown on light/dark cycles. I. Synchronized batch cultures. Journal of Phycology 12: 210-217, 8 figs, 1 table.
Chisholm, S.W., Stross, R.G. & Nobbs, P.A. (1975). Light/dark-phased cell division in Euglena gracilis (Z) (Euglenophyceae) in PO4- limited continuous culture. Journal of Phycology 11: 367-373, 7 figs.
Codd, G.A., Stewart, W.D.P. & Lord, J.M. (1975). Immunological comparison of ribulose-1, 5-diphosphate carboxylase from Euglena gracilis, Chlorella fusca and blue-green algae. British Phycological Journal 10: 310.
Cogburn, J.N. & Schiff, J.A. (1984). Purification and properties of the mucus of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 20: 533-544, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Cramer, M. & Myers, J. (1952). Growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Euglena gracilis. Archiv für Mikrobiol. 17: 384-402.
Fiol, D.F. & Salerno, G.L. (2005). Trehalose synthesis in Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae) occurs though and enzyme complex. Journal of Phycology 41: 812-818.
García-Ferris, C., de los Rios, A., Ascaso, C. & Moreno, J. (1996). Correlated biochemical and ultrastructural changes in nitrogen-starved Euglena gracilis. Journal of Phycology 32: 953-963, 8 figs, 1 table.
Gibbs, S.P. (1960). The fine structure of Euglena gracilis with special reference to the chloroplasts and pyrenoids. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 4: 127-148.
Gomez, M.P., Harris, J.B. & Walne, P.L. (1974). Studies of Euglena gracilis in ageing cultures. I. Light microscopy and cytochemistry. British Phycological Journal 9: 163-174, 17 figs.
Gomez, M.P., Harris, J.B. & Walne, P.L. (1974). Studies of Euglena gracilis in ageing cultures. II. Ultrastructure. British Phycological Journal 9: 175-193, 34 figs, 1 table.
Guttman, H.N. (1971). Internal details of Euglena gracilis visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Science 171: 290-292.
Huxtable, D.M. & Hyams, J.S. (1982). Euglenoid movement characterized by video light microscopy in Euglena gracilis. British Phycological Journal 17: 234.
Leedale, G.F. & Buetow, D.E. (1976). Observations on cytolysome formation and toher cytological phenomena in carbon-starved Euglena gracilis. J. Microscopie Biol. Cell. 25: 149-154.
Leedale, G.F. (1970). Observations on the mitochondrial reticulum in living Euglena gracilis. Cytobiologie 1: 195-202.
Leedale, G.F. (1975). Preliminary observationson nuclear cytology and ultrastructure in carbon-starved streptomycin-bleached Euglena gracilis. Coll. Internat. C. N. R. S. 240: 285-290.
Lefort, M. (1963). Étude comparitive de certains mutants dépigmentés chez l'Euglena gracilis et chez d'autres Algues. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 256: 5190-5192.
Lefort, M. (1964). Modifications du chondriome dans le cellules étiolées de l'Euglena gracilis (Klebs). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. 258: 4318-4321.
Lida, K. & Kajiwara, M. (2008). Carbon source dependence of the ratio of -aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis via the C5 and shemin pathways in Euglena Gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 292-298.
Lida, K. & Kajiwara, M. (2008). Carbon source dependence of the ratio of delta-aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis via the C5 and shemin pathways in Euglena Gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 44: 292-298.
Mandeville, S.E., Crespi, H.L. & Katz, J.J. (1964). Fully deuterated Euglena gracilis. Science 146: 769-770.
Melkonian, M. & Robenek, H. (1982). Flagellar membrane specializations and their relationship to mastigonemes and microtubules in Euglena gracilis. British Phycological Journal 17: 236.
Moriber, L.G., Hershenov, B., Aaronson, S. & Bensky, B. (1963). Teratological chloroplast structures in Euglena gracilis permanently bleached by exogenous physical and chemical agents. Journal of Protozoology 10: 80-86.
Noble, A., Kisiala, A., Galer, A., Clysdale, D. & Emery, R.J.N. (2014). Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae) produces abscisic acid and cytokinins and responds to their exogenous application singly and in combination with other growth regulators. European Journal of Phycology 49(2): 244-254.
Orcival-Lafont, A.-M. & Calvayrac, R. (1974). Le plastidome chez Euglena gracilis Z. Journal of Phycology 10: 300-307, 5 figs, 1 table.
Pellegrini, M. & Pellegrini, L. (1976). Continuité mitchondriale et discontinuité plastidiales chez l' Euglena gracilis Z.. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 282: 357-360.
Pigott, G.H. & Carr, N.G. (1972). Homology between nucleic acids of blue-green algae and chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis. Science 175: 1259-1261.
Rocchetta, I., Leonardi, P.I., Amado Filho, G.M., Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, M. & Conforti, V. (2007). Ultrastructure and X-ray microanalysis of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) under chromium stress. Phycologia 46(3): 300-306, 20 figs.
Ruiz, L.B., Rocchetta, L., dos Santos Ferreira, V. & Conforti, V. (2004). Isolation, culture and characterization of a new strain of Euglena gracilis. Phycological Research 52: 168-173.
Sperling Pagni, P.G., Walne, P.L. & Pagni, R.M. (1981). Of the occurrence of a-carotene in isolated stigmata of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris. Phycologia 20: 431-434, 1 table.
Spiess, E. & Richter, G. (1966). Die Nucleinsäuren und gebleichter Zellen von Euglena gracilis. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 53: 195-207.
Sun, A., Hasan, M.T., Hobba, G., Nevalainen, H. & Te'o, J. (2018). Comparative assessment of the Euglena gracilis var. saccharophila variant strain as a producer of the ß-1,3-glucan paramylon under varying light conditions. Journal of Phycology 54(4): 529-538.
Tamponnet, C. & Edmunds, L.N., Jr (1990). Entrainment and phase-shifting of the circadian rhythm of cell division by calcium in synchronous cultures of the wild-type Z strain and of the ZC achlorophyllous mutant of Euglena gracilis. Plant Physiol 93: 425-431.
Triemer, R.E. (1980). Role of golgi apparatus in mucilage production and cyst formation in Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 16: 46-52, 14 figs.
Tsubo, Y. & Ueda, T. (1972). Chloroplast autonomy revealed by nutritionally controlled Euglena gracilis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 336-338.
Tsukada, S., Ehara, T., Sumida, S., Osafune, T. & Hase, E. (1986). Behaviour of proplastids and their nucleoids in dark-organotrophically grown cells of Euglena gracilis transferred to an inorganic medium. British Phycological Journal 21: 155-163, 10 figs.
Vogel, S.L., Frisch, H.L. & Gotham, I.J. (1978). Qualitative assay of dissolved amino acids and sugars excreted by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae) and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyceae). Journal of Phycology 14: 403-406, 2 tables.
Wolken, J.J. & Shin, E. (1958). Photomotion in Euglena gracilis I. Photokinesis II. Phototaxis. Journal of Protozoology 5: 39-46.
Wolken, J.J. (1956). A molecular morphology of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris. Journal of Protozoology 3: 211-221.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 April 2021.

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