159,371 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,546 images, 61,963 bibliographic items, 463,038 distributional records.

Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis 1948

Publication details
Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis 1948: 358, figs 1, 2 (as 'brevis' )

Published in: Davis, C.C. (1948). Gymnodinium brevis sp. nov., a cause of discolored water and sinimal mortalites in the Gulf of Mexico. Botanical Gazette 109: 358-360.

Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Gymnodinium is Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Moestrup

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), short, of small extent (Stearn 1973).

No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Nomenclatural notes
Harmful species (Davis 1948). - (19 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 38) notes this species produces a series of brevetoxins (neurotoxins). Please consult original reference for further details.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Type information
Type locality: Gulf of Mexico: near Naples, Florida, USA (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 38). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 38).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gymnodinium breve C.C.Davis)
Atlantic Islands: Iceland (Scholz & Einarsson 2015).

Europe: Britain (Parke & Dixon 1976), Greece (Faust & Gulledge 2002), Portugal (Moita & Vilarinho 1999), Spain (Faust & Gulledge 2002).

North America: Florida (FL) (Faust & Gulledge 2002).

Central America: Mexico (Atlantic) (Faust & Gulledge 2002).

Asia: Japan (Faust & Gulledge 2002).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Faust & Gulledge 2002).

Source of current name
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Key references
Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 2548 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Collier, A., Wilson, W.B. & Borkowski, M. (1969). Responses of Gymnodinium breve Davis to natural waters of diverse origin. Journal of Phycology 5: 168-172, 7 figs, 3 tables.
Doucette, G.J., McGovern, E.R. & Babinchak, J.A. (1999). Algicide bacteria active against Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae). I. Bacterial isolation and characterization of killing activity. Journal of Phycology 35: 1447-1454.
Kim, Y.S. & Martin, D.F. (1974). Effects of salinity on synthesis of DNA, acedic polysaccharide, and ichthyotoxin in Gymnodinium breve. Phytochemistry 13: 533-538.
Murphy, E.B., Steidinger, K.A., Roberts, B.S., Williams, J. & Jolley, J.W., Jr (1975). An explanation for the Florida east coast Gymnodinium breve red tide of November 1972. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 481-486.
Steidinger, K.A. (1975). Implications of dinoflagellate life cycles on initiation of Gymnodinium breve red tides. Environ. Let. 9: 129-139.
Steidinger, K.A., Truby, E.W. & Dawes, C.J. (1978). Ultrastructure of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. I. General description. Journal of Phycology 14: 72-79.
Trieff, N.M., Mcshan, M., Grajcer, D. & Alam, M. (1973). Biological assay of Gymnodinium breve toxin using brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 31: 409-422.
Van Dolah, F.M. & Leighfield, T.A. (1999). Diel phasing of the cell-cycle in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. Journal of Phycology 35: 1404-1411.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=43922

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 October 2020.

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