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Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) J.Schiller

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Prorocentrales
Family Prorocentraceae
Genus Prorocentrum

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Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) J.Schiller
Image of a cell in culture.. © Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).

 

Publication details
Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) J.Schiller 1933: 32, figs 33 a, b

Published in: Schiller, J. (1933). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae) in monographischer behandlung.. In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 433-617. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Prorocentrum is Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Prorocentrum cordatum (Ostenfeld) J.D.Dodge

Basionym
Exuviaella minima Pavillard

Type information
Type locality: France: Golfe de Lion (Silva 1996-to date).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), very little, very least (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Prorocentrum triangulatum G.W.Martin 1929
Exuviaella minima Schiller 1933
Exuviaella marie-lebouriae Parke & Ballantine 1957
Prorocentrum cordiforme A.S.Bursa 1959
Prorocentrum marielebouriae (Parke & Ballantine) A.R.Loeblich III 1970

Nomenclatural notes
in Rabenhorst 1931: 32 (INA). - (12 Jun 2012) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 65) notes this is a toxic species; it produces venerupin (hepatotoxin), which has caused shellfish poisoning resulting in gastrointestinal illness in humans and a number of deaths. Please consult original reference for further details.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Source of current name
Velikova, V. & Larsen, J. (1999). The Prorocentrum cordatum/Prorocentrum minimum taxonomic problem. Grana 38: 108-112, 8 figs.

Key references
Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Kim, S. (2006). Patterns in host range for two strains of Amoebophyra (Dinophyta) infecting thecate dinoflagellates: Amoebophyra spp. ex Alexandrium affine and ex Gonyaulax polygramma (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1170-1173.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lin, S., Zhang, H. & Jiao, N. (2006). Potential utility of mitochondrial cytochrome b and its mRNA editing in resolving closely related dinoflagellates: a case study of Prorocentrum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 646-654.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Monti, M., Stoecker, D.K., Cataletto, B. & Talarico , L. (2010). Morphology of the flagellar pore complex in Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) from the Adriatic and Baltic Seas. Botanica Marina 53(4): 357-365.

Schiller, J. (1931). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 1-256. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Taylor, F.J.R. (1976). Dinoflagellates from the International Indian Ocean Expedition: A report on material collected by the R.V. "Anton Bruun". Bibliotheca Botanica 132: 1-234, 46 pls, 5 charts, 5 tables.

Zhang, H., Bhattacharya, D. & Lin, S. (2005). Phylogeny of dinoflagellates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear small subunit rDNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 41: 411-420.

Created: 02 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 13 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 6094 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Antia, A.N., Carpenter, E.J. & Chang, J. (1990). Species-specific phytoplankton growth rates via diel DNA synthesis cycles .3. Accuracy of growth rate measurement in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. MAR ECOL-PR 63(2-3): 273-279.
Dyhrman, S.T. & Palenik, B. (2001). A single-cell immunoassay for phosphate stress in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 400-410.
Dyhrman, S.T. & Palenik, B.P. (1997). The identification and purification of a cell-surface alkaline phosphatase from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 33: 602-612, 8 figs, 1 table.
Guo, R. & Ki, I.S. (2013). Characterization of a novel catalase-peroxidase (KATG) gene from the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Note). Journal of Phycology 49(5): 1011-1016.
Heil, C.A., Gilber, P.M. & Fan, C.-L. (2005). Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller a review of a harmful algal bloom species of growing worldwide importance. Harmful Algae 4: 449-470, 1 figs., 4 tables.
Heimann, K., Roberts, K.R. & Wetherbee, R. (1995). Flagellar apparatus transformation and development in Prorocentrum micans and P. minimum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 34: 323-335, 52 figs.
Honsell, G. & Talarico, L. (1982). Preliminary observations of cell divisions in Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae). Caryologia 35: 386-387.
Johnsen, G. & Sakshaug, E. (1993). Bio-optical characteristics and photoadaptive responses in the toxic and bloom-forming dinoflagellates Gyrodinium aureolum, Gymnodinium galatheanum, and two strains of Prorocentrum minimum. Journal of Phycology 29: 627 -642, 8 figs, 5 tables.
Kim, H.-G. (1986). Ecological study of dinoflagellates responsible for red tide 2. The population growth of Prorocentrum minimum (Pav.) Schiller. The Korean Journal of Phycology 1(1): 103-106, 2 figs, 2 tables.
Li, Y., Sunila, I. & Wikfors, G.H. (2012). Bioactive effects of Prorocentrum minimum on juvenile bay scallops (Argopecten irradians irradians) are dependent upon algal physiological status. Botanica Marina 55(1): 19-29.
Manoharan, K., Lee, T.K., Cha, J.M., Kim, J.H., Lee, W.S., Chang, M., Park, C.W. & Cho, J.H. (1999). Acclimation of Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) to prolonged darkness by use of an alternative carbon source from triacylglycerides and galactolipids. Journal of Phycology 35: 287-292, 5 figs.
Maranda, L. (2001). Infection of Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) by the parasite Amoebophrya sp. (Dinoflagellea) (NOTE). Journal of Phycology 37: 245-248.
Monti, M., Stoecker, D.K., Cataletto, B. & Talarico , L. (2010). Morphology of the flagellar pore complex in Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) from the Adriatic and Baltic Seas. Botanica Marina 53(4): 357-365.
Pertola, S., Faust, M.A., Kuosa, H. & Hällfors, G. (2003). Morphology of Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) in the Baltic Sea and in Chesapeake Bay: comparison of cell shapes and thecal ornamentation. Botanica Marina 46: 477-486.
Salerno, M. & Stoecker, D.K. (2009). Ectocellular glucosidase and peptidase activity of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 45: 34-45.
Schofield, O., Prézelin, B. & Johnsen, G. (1996). Wavelength dependency of the maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation for two red tide dinoflagellates, Heterocapsa pygmaea and Prorocentrum minimum (Pyrrophyta): implications for measuring photosynthetic rates. Journal of Phycology 32: 574-583, 10 figs, 2 tables.
Sciandra, A. (1991). Coupling and uncoupling between Nitrate uptake and growth rate in Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae) under different frequencies of pulsed nitrate supply. Marine Ecology Progress Series 72(3): 261-269.
Velikova, V. & Larsen, J. (1999). The Prorocentrum cordatum/Prorocentrum minimum taxonomic problem. Grana 38: 108-112, 8 figs.
Zhang, H. & Lin, S. (2003). Complex gene structure of the form II RUBISCO in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 1160-1171.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 February 2020.

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