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Gymnodinium catenatum H.W.Graham

Publication details
Gymnodinium catenatum H.W.Graham 1943: 259, figs. 1, 2

Published in: Graham, H.W. (1943). Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 62(3): 259-261.

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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Gymnodinium is Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), chained, chain-like (Stearn 1973).

Synonym(s)
No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Usage notes
This species produces paralytic shellfish poisons, mainly sulfamate saxitoxin derivatives, which accumulate in shellfish such as oysters, mussels and scallops, and thus can cause neurological and gastrointestinal problems in human shellfish consumers. Shellfish containing more than 80 micrograms toxin per 100 g meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption (Hallegraeff, 1991). Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Type information
Type locality: NE Pacific Ocean: Gulf of California, Mexico (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 39). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 39).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Band-Schmidt, C., Bustillos-Guzmán, J., Morquecho, L., Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Alonso-Rodriguez, R., Reyes-Salinas, A., Erler, K. & Luckas, B. (2006). Variations of PSP toxin profiles during different growth phases in Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) strains isolated from three locations in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Phycology 42(4): 757-768.

Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

Ellegaard, M., Christensen, N.F. & Moestrup, Ø. (1993). Temperature and salinity effects on growth of a non-chain-forming strain of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) established from a cyst from recent sediments in The Sound (Øresund), Denmark. Journal of Phycology 29(4): 418 -426, 16 figs, 2 tables.

Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Figueroa, R.I., Bravo, I., Garces, E. & Ramilo, I. (2006). Nuclear features and effect of nutrients on Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) sexual stages . Journal of Phycology 42: 67-77.

Flø Jørgesen, M., Murray, S. and Daugbjerg, N. (2004). Amphidinium revisited. I. Redefinition of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae) based on cladistic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Phycology 40: 351-365, 6 Figs.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I. (2014). Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Dinoflagelados desnudos presentes durante un florecimiento de Ceratoperidinium falcatum en Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 49: 577-587.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2007). S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates. Phycologia 46: 46-53.

Jeong, H.J., Kim, H.R., Kim, K.L., Kim, K.Y., Park, K.H., Kim, S.T., Yoo, Y.D., Song, J.Y., Kim, J.S., Seong, K.A., Yih, W.H., Pae, S.J., Lee, C.H., Huh, M.D. & Lee, S.H. (2002). NaOCl produced by electrolysis of natural seawater as a potential method to control marine red-tide dinoflagellates. Phycologia 41: 643-656.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216. [in English and Vietnamese]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Thessen, A.E., Patterson, D.J. & Murray, S.A. (2012). The taxonomic significance of species that have only been observed once: The genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an example. PLoS ONE 7(8): e44015.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 7651 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amorim, A., Dale, B., Godinho, R. & Brotas, V. (2002). Gymnodinium catenatum-like cysts (Dinophyceae) in recent sediments from the coast of Portugal. Phycologia 40: 572-582.
Anderson, D.M., Jacobson, D.M., Bravo, I. & Wrenn, J.H. (1988). The unique, microreticulate cyst of the naked dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Journal of Phycology 24: 255-262.
Band-Schmidt, C., Bustillos-Guzmán, J., Morquecho, L., Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Alonso-Rodriguez, R., Reyes-Salinas, A., Erler, K. & Luckas, B. (2006). Variations of PSP toxin profiles during different growth phases in Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) strains isolated from three locations in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Phycology 42(4): 757-768.
Blackburn, S.I., Bolch, C.J.S., Haskard, K.A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2001). Reproductive compatibility amoung four global populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40: 78-87.
Blackburn, S.I., Hallegraeff, G.M. & Bolch, C.J. (1989). Vegetative reproduction and sexual life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from Tasmania, Australia. Journal of Phycology 25: 577-590, 32 figs, 2 tables.
Bolch, C.J.S., Blackburn, S.I., Hallegraeff, G.M. & Vaillancourt, R.E. (1999). Genetic variation among strains of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 35: 356-367, 3 figs, 4 tables.
Bolch, C.J.S., Negri, A.P. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (1999). Gymnodinium microreticulatum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): a naked, microreticulate cyst-producing dinoflagellate, distinct from Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium nolleri. Phycologia 38: 301-313, 22 figs, 2 tables.
Bolch, C.J.S., Subramanian, T.A. & Green, D.H. (2011). The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) requires marine bacteria for growth. Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1009-1022.
Carrada, G.C., Casotti, R., Modigh, M. & Saggiomo, V. (1991). Presence of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) in a coastal Mediterranean lagoon. J Plankton Res 13(1): 229-238.
Costas, E., Zardoya, R., Bautista, J., Garrido, A., Rojo, C. & López-Rodas, V. (1995). Morphospecies vs. genospecies in toxic marine dinoflagellates: an analysis of Gymnodinium catenatum/Gyrodinium impudicum and Alexandrium minutum/A. lusitanicum using antibodies, lectins, and gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 31: 801-807, 1 fig, 5 tables.
Ellegaard, M. & Oshima, Y. (1998). Gymnodinium nolleri Ellegaard et Moestrup sp. ined. (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters, a new species producing Gymnodinium catenatum-like cysts: molecular and toxicological comparisons with Australian and Spanish strains of Gymnodinium catenatum. Phycologia 37: 369-378, 14 figs, 4 tables.
Ellegaard, M., Christensen, N.F. & Moestrup, Ø. (1993). Temperature and salinity effects on growth of a non-chain-forming strain of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) established from a cyst from recent sediments in The Sound (Øresund), Denmark. Journal of Phycology 29(4): 418 -426, 16 figs, 2 tables.
Fermín, E.G., Figueiras, F.G., Arbones, B. & Villarino, M.L. (1996). Short-time scale development of a Gymnodinium catenatum population in the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain). Journal of Phycology 32: 212-221, 7 figs, 1 table.
Figueroa, R.I., Bravo, I., Garces, E. & Ramilo, I. (2006). Nuclear features and effect of nutrients on Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) sexual stages . Journal of Phycology 42: 67-77.
Graham, H.W. (1943). Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 62(3): 259-261.
Gu, H., Liu, T., Vale, P. & Z. Luo (2013). Morphology, phylogeny and toxin profiles of Gymnodinium inusitatum sp. nov., Gymnodinium catenatum and Gymnodinium microreticulatum (Dinophyceae) from the Yellow Sea, China. Harmful Algae 28: 97-107, 8 fig., 2 tables.
Hallegraeff, G.M., Nichols, P.D., Volkman, J.K., Blackburn, S.I. & Everitt, D.A. (1991). Pigments, fatty acids and sterols of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Journal of Phycology 27: 591-599, 3 figs, 4 tables.
Holmes, M.J., Bolch, C.J.S., Green, D.H., Cembella, A.D. & Teo, S.L.M. (2002). Singapore isolates of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) produce a unique profile of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Journal of Phycology 38: 96-106.
Lage, S. & Reis Costa, P. (2013). Paralytic shellfish toxins in the Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) over a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum: the prevalence of decarbamoylsaxitoxin in the marine food web. Sci. Mar. 77(1): 13-17.
Matsuoka, K. & Fukuyo, Y. (1994). Geographical distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham in Japanese coastal waters. Botanica Marina 37: 495-503, 3 figs, 3 tables.
Morey-Gaines, G. (1982). Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Dinophyceae): morphology and affinities with armoured forms. Phycologia 21: 154-163, 15 figs, 1 table.
Oh, S.J. & Yoon, Y.H. (2004). Effects of water temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham) isolated from Yeosuhae Bay, Korea. Algae 19(4): 293-301, 5 figs, 2 tables. [in Korean]
Ordás, M.C., Fraga, S., Franco, J.M., Ordás, A. & Figueras, A. (2004). Toxin and molecular analysis of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) strains from Galicia (NW Spain) and Andalucía (S Spain). J. Plankton Res. 26: 341-350.
Park, T.-G., Kim, C.-H. & Oshima, Y. (2004). Paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of different geographic populations of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) in Korean coastal waters. Phycological Research 52(3): 300-306.
Rees, A.J.J. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (1991). Ultrastructure of the toxic, chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 30: 90-105.
Reis Costa, P.; Botelho, M.J. & Lefevre, K.A. (2010). Characterization of paralytic shellfish toxins in seawater and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) during blooms of Gymnodinium catenatum. Hydrobiologia 655: 89-97.
Sako, Y., Yoshida, T., Uchida, A., Arakawa, O., Noguchi, T. & Ishida, Y. (2001). Purification and characterization of sulfotransferase specific to N-21 of saxitoxin and gonyautoxin 2+3 from the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 1044-1051.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 February 2020.

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