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Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Bangiophyceae
Subclass Bangiophycidae
Order Bangiales
Family Bangiaceae
Genus Porphyra

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
ollected by non other than Kathleen Drew. Taken at the London Natural History Museum in July, 2014. 24 Oct 2014. Bridgette Clarkston. © 2014 Bridgette Clarkston.

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
Porphyra umbilicalis, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
Porphyra umbilicalis, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
Porphyra umbilicalis, North of Portugal, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
South of Portugal 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
male, Ría de A Coruña, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
male, Ría de A Coruña, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
male, Ría de A Coruña, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing
female, Ría de A Coruña, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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45 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2008
© Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es)

Publication details
Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing 1843: 383

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis oder Anatomie, Physiologie und Systemkunde der Tange. Mit 80 farbig gedruckten Tafeln, gezeichnet und gravirt vom Verfasser. pp. [part 1]: [i]-xxxii, [1]-142, [part 2:] 143-458, 1, err.], pls 1-80. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Porphyra is Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Porphyra laciniata f. umbilicalis (Kützing) Kleen 1874

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva umbilicalis Linnaeus 1753
Ulva umbilicata S.F.Gray 1821
Ulva latissima var. umbilicalis (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1823
Porphyra laciniata var. umbilicalis C.Agardh 1829
Porphyra umbilicata Ruprecht 1850
Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1883
Wildemania laciniata (Lightfoot) DeToni 1892
Wildemania umbilicalis (Linnaeus) De Toni 1897
Porphyra umbilicalis f. epiphytica Collins 1903
Wildemania laciniata var. umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Malard ex Chalon 1905
Porphyra insolita Kornmann & Sahling 1991

Nomenclatural notes
Brodie et al. (2008: 1328) present convincing evidence that Kützing's (1843: 383) binomial should not be considered a "presumed new combination" for Ulva umbilicalis Linnaeus under Art. 33.3 of the ICBN, and should be regarded as a separate nomenclatural act. J. Agardh's (1883) combination of Ulva umbilicalis into Porphyra is also a separate nomenclatural act, and represents a later and thus illegimate homonym. Brodie et al. (2008: 1328) also designate a neotype from Scotland for Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing and at the same time designate this specimens as the epitype of Ulva umbilicalis Linnaeus (1753), thus consolidating the taxonomic integrity of all three names. - (10 Dec 2008) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
According to Brodie et al. (2008), the confirmed distribution is currently the North Atlantic, although there is evidence that the name has been misapplied in this region. The global distribution requires review. - (10 Dec 2008) - Wendy Guiry

A study with fresh and old material has revealed that neither Porphyra umbilicalis nor Pyropia leucosticta are present in the Balearic Islands (Vergés et al. 2013) - (7 Oct 2013) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing)
English: Laverbread (Ohmi 1968), Purple laver, Sloak, Slook, Laver (Madlener 1977), Tough Laver (Bunker et al. 2010).

French: Laitue rouge (Boisvert 1984).

Japanese: Chishima-kuronori (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Nori (McConnaughey 1985).

Portuguese: Folhuda (Morton et al., 1998).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
purple laver {Eng}; chishima-kuro-nori {Jap}; laver {Eng}; porphyrtang {Ger}; pink laver {Eng}; "laver, purple"; "laver, pink"

Description
Gametophyte thallus reddish brown, brownish, grey brown or olive green in the field, drying to brownish purple, attached by a minute but stout holdfast; stipe indistinct; blade orbiculate to elongate, auriculate and/or cucullate; base slightly to extremely cordate, overlapping to appear umbilicate; margins sometimes much pleated; blades single or multiple, sometimes forming a rosette. Thallus monostromatic, 58–70 µm thick with cells in surface view 8–16 × 6–8 µm and in transverse section 30–34 × 9–10 µm. Usually dioecious; sori marginal; male gametangia in packets of 4 × 4 in surface view and ×8 in transverse section ( = 128 gametes); zygotosporangia in packets of 2 × 4 in surface view and ×2 in transverse section ( = 16 zygotospores). Neutral sporangia are sometimes present.

Habitat
On rocks, mussels, etc., midtidal to splash zone, generally distributed, abundant, especially on exposed coasts.

Key characteristics
Lettuce-like appearance and habitat.

Similar species
May be a species complex.

Type information
Type locality: Scotland: Easdale, Argyll (Brodie et al. 2008: 1330). Neotype: J. Brodie & P.K. Hayes; 23 July 1998; From the back of a limpet. BM 000769632 (Brodie et al. 2008: 1330). Notes: Illustrated in Brodie et al. (2008: fig. 1 B).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Bates, C.R., Saunders, G.W. & Chopin, T. (2005). An assessment of two taxonomic distinctness indices for detecting seaweed assemblage responses to environmental stress. Botanica Marina 48: 231-243.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Brodie, J. & Irvine, L.M. (2003). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 3B. Bangiophycidae. pp. i-xiii, 1-167, map. Andover: Intercept.

Brodie, J. Irvine, L., Neefus, C.D. & Russell, S. (2008). Ulva umbilicalis Linnaeus and Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing (Rhodophyta, Bangiaceae): a molecular and morphological redescription of the species, with a typification update. Taxon 57: 1328-1331, 1 fig.

Eriksen, R.L., Green, L.A. & Klein, A. S. (2016). Genetic variation within and among asexual populations of Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the Gulf of Maine, USA. 59(1): 1-12.

Klein, A.S, Mathieson, A.C., Neefus, C.D., Cain, D.C., Taylor, H.A., Teasdale, B.W., West, A.L., Hehre, E.J., Brodie, J., Yarish, C. & Wallace, A.L. (2003). Identification of north-western Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiaceae, Bangiales) based on sequence variation in nuclear SSU and plastid rbcL genes. Phycologia 42: 109-122, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Lindstrom, S.C. & Fredericq, S. (2003). rbcL gene sequences reveal relationships among north-east Pacific species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and a new species, P. aestivalis. Phycological Research 51(3): 211-224.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mols-Mortensen, A., Neefus, C.D., Pedersen, P.M. & Brodie, J. (2014). Diversity and distribution of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in West Greenland: a link between the North Atlantic and North Pacific. European Journal of Phycology 49(1): 1-10.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Stiller, J.W., Perry, J., Rymarquis, L.A., Accerbi, M., Green, P.J., Prochnik, S., Lindquist, E., Chan, C.X., Yarish, C., Lin., S., Zhuang, Y., Blouin, N.A. & Brawley, S.H. (2012). Major developmental regulators and their expression in two closely related species of Porphyra (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 883-896.

Tanaka, T. (1952). The systematic study of the Japanese Protoflorideae. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University 2(2): 1-92, 41 figs, 23 pls.

Vinogradova K.L. (2007). The genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the north seas of Russia. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 92(4): 532-543, 3 pls.

Zinova, A.D. (1955). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Determination book of the red algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-219 [+ 1], 169 figs. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 28 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 48308 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Brodie, J. Irvine, L., Neefus, C.D. & Russell, S. (2008). Ulva umbilicalis Linnaeus and Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing (Rhodophyta, Bangiaceae): a molecular and morphological redescription of the species, with a typification update. Taxon 57: 1328-1331, 1 fig.
Conway, E. (1964). Autecological studies of the genus Porphyra. II. Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Ag.. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 349-363, 2 pls.
Conway, E. (1964). Comments on Porphyra umbilicalis. British Phycological Bulletin 2: 393.
Drew, K.M. (1949). Conchocelis-phase in the life-history of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Kütz. Nature, London 166: 748-749.
Drew, K.M. (1954). Studies in the Bangioideae III. The life-history of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Kütz. var. laciniata (Lightf.) J. Ag. A. The conchocelis-phase in culture. Annals of Botany, New Series 18: 183-211.
Eriksen, R.L., Green, L.A. & Klein, A. S. (2016). Genetic variation within and among asexual populations of Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the Gulf of Maine, USA. 59(1): 1-12.
Figueroa, F.L., Aguilera, J. & Niell, F.X. (1995). Red and blue light regulation of growth and photosynthetic metabolism in Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 30: 11-18, 10 figs, 3 tables.
Frei, E. & Preston, R.D. (1964). Non-cellulosic structural polysaccharides in algal cell walls II. Association of xylan and mannan in Porphyra umbilicalis. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B 160: 314-327.
Giraud, N. & Magne, F. (1968). La place de la méiose dans le cycle de développement de Porphyra umbilicalis. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 267: 586-588.
Grubb, V. (1924). Observations on the ecology and reproduction of Porphyra umbilicalis (L) J. Ag.. Revue Algologique No 3: 1-12 (reprint nos).
Grubb, V.M. (1923). The attachments of Porphyra umbilicalis, (L.) J. Ag.. Annals of Botany 37: 131-140.
Gröniger, A., Hallier, C. & Häder, D.P. (1999). Influence of UV radiation and visible light on Porphyra umbilicalis: Photoinhibition and MAA concentration. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 437-445.
Gunawardena, P. & Williamson, F. B. (1981). Structure and composition of the cell wall, intercellular matrix and other cuticle of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 568-572.
Hernández, I. (1996). Analysis of the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity as a measure of phosphorus status in the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Kützing. Botanica Marina 39: 255-262.
Hilditch, C.M., Jones, P.B., Balding, P., Smith, A.J. & Rogers, L.J. (1991). Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases from macroalgae - proteolysis during extraction and properties of the enzyme from Porphyra umbilicalis. Phytochemistry 30(3): 745-750.
Kraemer, G.P. & Yarish, C. (1999). A preliminary comparison of the mariculture potential of Porphyra purpurea and Porphyra umbilicalis. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 473-477.
Kurogi, M. & Sato, S. (1967). Effect of photoperiod on the growth and maturation of Conchocelis-thallus of Porphyra umbilicalis (l.) Kütz. and Porphyra pseudocrassa Yamada et Mikami. Bull Tohoku Reg Fish Res Lab No 27: 111-130.
Kurogi, M., Sato, S. & Yoshida, T. (1967). Effect of water temperature on the liberation of monospores from the Conchocelis of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Kütz. Bull Tohoku Reg Fish Res Lab No 27: 131-139.
Kylin, H. (1949). Über Porphyra umbilicalis und Porphyra laciniata. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets i Lund Förhandlingar 17: 1-3.
Liu, X.-W. & Kloareg, B. (1991). Tissue culture of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). I. The effects of plant hormones on callus induction from tissue explants. C R Acad Sci 312(10): 517-522.
López-Figueroa, F. & Niell, F.X. (1989). Red-light and blue-light photoreceptors controlling chlorophyll a synthesis in the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis and in the green alga Ulva rigida. Physiologia Plantarum 76: 391-397.
Lüning, K. (2001). Circadian growth rhythm in Porphyra umbilicalis (Rhodophyta): spectral sensitivity of the circadian system. Journal of Phycology 37: 52-58.
Lüning, K., Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanova, T.V. (1997). Diurnal and circadian periodicity of mitosis and growth in marine macroalgae. III. The red alga Porphyra umbilicalis. European Journal of Phycology 32: 167-173, 7 figs.
Pereira, R., Sousa-Pinto, I. & Yarish, C. (2001). Studies on the life cycle of Porphyra dioica and Porphyra umbilicalis from Portugal. J. Phycol. 37, suppl.: 40-41.
Rees, T.K. (1940). A preliminary account of the life-history of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) Ag.. Annals of Botany New Series 4(July): 669-672.
Schramm, W. (1972). The effects of oil pollution on gas exchange in Porphyra umbilicalis when exposed to air. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 309-315.
Shameel, M. (1978). Comparitive effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen tension on photosynthetic and respiratory rates in Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Ag. Pakistan Journal of Botany 10: 119-131.
Teasdale, B.W. & Klein, A.S. (2010). Genetic variation and biogeographical boundaries within the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 53(5): 417-431.
Turvey, J. R. & Rees, D. A. (1958). The carbohydrate of red algae: Porphyra umbilicalis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 74-75.
Turvey, J. R. & Williams, T. P. (1964). Sugar sulphates from the mucilage of Porphyra umbilicalis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 370-373.
Van Tussenbroek, B.I. (1984). Effect of continuous unilateral irradiation on the conchocelis of Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Ag. and some other red algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 83: 263-274.
Wiencke, C. & Lüachli, A. (1983). Tonoplast fine structure and osmotic regulation in Porphyra umbilicalis. Planta 159: 342-346.
Wiencke, C., Knoth, A. & Stelzer, R. (1984). Changes of protoplasmic and vascuolar volume during osmotic adaptation and ion compartmentation in Porphyra umbilicalis. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 481-484.
Wiencke, C., Stelzer, R. & Läuchli, A. (1983). Ion compartmentation in Porphyra umbilicalis determined by electron-probe X-ray microanalysis. Planta 159: 336-341.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 September 2018.

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