152,876 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,938 images, 59,117 bibliographic items, 408,264 distributional records.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK. 18 Jun 2015. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Red-cyan anaglyph showing thallus in 3D. Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK. 18 Jun 2015. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Red-cyan anaglyph showing 3D form of young and older growth. Barton-under-Needwood Quarry, South Staffordshire, UK (Freshwater). 05 Jun 2014. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Barton-under-Needwood Quarry, South Staffordshire, UK. 05 Jun 2014. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Very young filaments, Barton-under-Needwood Quarry, South Staffordshire, UK (Freshwater). 05 Jun 2014. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Barton-under-Needwood Quarry, South Staffordshire, UK. (Freshwater lake).. 05 Jun 2014. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
1. Habit. 2. Surface view of cells. 3. Free floating masses (O Lan Lagoon, Vietnam).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Young filaments. Stanwick Lakes, Northampton, UK.. 26 Apr 2006. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen
Surface at high magnification. Stanwick Lakes, Northampton, UK.. 26 Apr 2006. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

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Myriogramme multilobata A.D.Zinova

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen 1. Habit. 2. Surface view of cells. 3. Free floating masses (O Lan Lagoon, Vietnam).
© Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru)

Publication details
Ulva flexuosa Wulfen 1803: xxii, 1

Published in: Wulfen, F.X. (1803). Cryptogama aquatica. Archives de Botanique 3: 1-64, pl. 1.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), zigzag, bent alternately in opposite directions (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Conferva flexuosa Roth 1800
Enteromorpha intestinalis var. tubulosa Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha tubulosa (Kützing) Kützing 1856
Enteromorpha lingulata J.Agardh 1883
Enteromorpha compressa var. lingulata (J.Agardh) Hauck 1884
Enteromorpha prolifera var. tubulosa (Kützing) Batters 1902
Enteromorpha intestinalis f. tubulosa (Kützing) V.J.Chapman 1937
Enteromorpha tubulosa var. ramosa Schiffner 1938
Enteromorpha lingulata var. elongata Schiffner 1938
Enteromorpha lingulata f. genuina Schiffner 1938
Enteromorpha tubulosa var. vermiculata Schiffner 1938

Nomenclatural notes
Replaced name: Conferva paradoxa Roth, nom. illeg., non Conferva paradoxa O.F.Müller. - (29 Aug 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Taxonomic notes
John et al. (2004) give Enteromorpha lingulata J. Agardh, E. paradoxa (Dillwyn) Kützing and E. erecta (Lyngb.) J. Agardh as synonyms of this species. John et al. (2004) have followed Hayden et al. (2003) who consider Enteromorpha lingulata close to or identical with E. flexuosa. For further discussion of the conspecificity of these two species, see Lawson & Price (1969).

Distributional notes
Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Euryhaline, primarily freshwater species, occurring in a wide variety of flowing and stagnant waters. It prefers highly oxygenated, alkaline, and eutrophic waters, with high levels of sulphates, and in mildly brackish habitats. - (14 Mar 2018) - M.D. Guiry

Conservational notes
According to Mares et al. (2011:1187), Ulva flexuosa [subspp.] should not be considered as alien or invasive in inland European waters. - (22 Dec 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Common names

(as Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh)
Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

English: Winding Nori (F.A.O. 1997).

Hawaiian: Limu ele'ele (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Swedish: Gallertarmalg, Tarmalg (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Type information
Type locality: Duino (near Trieste), Adriatic Sea [marine localtion] (Womersley 1984: 157). Type: W Wulfen No. 23 (Hayden et al. 2003: 289, table 4).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva flexuosa Wulfen)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Curiel et al. 2012), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Milchakova 2011), Britain (Brodie et al. 2007, Mares et al. 2011, John, Whitton & Brook 2011, Brodie et al. 2016), Bulgaria (Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008, Berov et al. 2012), Czech Republic (Rybak 2015), France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Rybak 2015), Greece (Tsiamis et al. ), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Italy (Wolf et al. 2012), Poland (Rybak 2015), Portugal (Araújo et al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017, Caraus 2017), Slovenia (Mares et al. 2011 ), Spain (Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Conde-Alvarez et al. 2012, García-Fernández, Vis & Aboal 2015), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016, Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Mares et al. 2011), Turkey (Europe) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (John et al. 2004), Canary Islands (John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004), Madeira (John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (John et al. 2004).

North America: Baja California Sur (Gulf) (Pérez-Eatrada et al. 2012 ), British Columbia (Saunders & Kucera 2010), California (Miller 2012, Stancheva et al. 2013), Florida (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Mexico (Hernández Almeida & Siqueiros Beltrones 2012 ), Mexico (Caribbean) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), Texas (Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), El Salvador (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Guatemala (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015, Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche et al. 2005), Panama (Fernández-García et al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Gonzáles et al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2018), Martinique (Delnatte & Wynne 2016), St. Eustatius (van der Loos & Prud'homme van Reine 2015, van der Loos et al. 2017), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2013), Brazil (Castelar et al. 2009, Villaca et al. 2010 , Moura 2010, Carvalho et al. 2017), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011).

Africa: Angola (John et al. 2004), Cameroon (John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (John et al. 2004), Egypt (Mediterranean) (Shabaka 2018), Equatorial Guinea (John et al. 2004), Eritrea (Ateweberhan & Prud'homme van Reine 2005), Gabon (John et al. 2004), Gambia (John et al. 2004, John et al. 2004), Ghana (John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Liberia (John et al. 2004), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Namibia (John et al. 2004), Nigeria (John et al. 2004), São Tomé & Príncipe (John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (John et al. 2004), Togo (John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Miladi et al. 2008).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Abu Dhabi (John 2005), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Cyprus (Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Rao & Gupta 2015), Israel (Hoffman 2004), Kuwait (Al-Yamani et al. 2014), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: China (Titlyanov et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015), Japan (Kraft et al. 2010, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), South Korea (Kirkendale et al. 2013), Taiwan (Anon. 2012), Tajikistan (Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun et al. 2009, Hlaing Hlaing Htoon & Soe-Htun), Philippines (Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Pham et al. 2011), Vietnam (Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Titlyanov et al. 2011, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2007), New South Wales (Kirkendale et al. 2013), New Zealand (Heesch et al. 2009 , Broady et al. 2012), Queensland (Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Kirkendale et al. 2013, Huisman 2015).

Pacific Islands: American Samoa (Skelton et al. 2004), Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Hawaiian Islands (Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014).

(as Enteromorpha tubulosa (Kützing) Kützing)
Europe: France (Dizerbo & Herpe 2007), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Spain (Margalef 1950a), Sweden (Kylin 1907).

North America: Gulf of California (Setchell & Gardner 1924).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Wang 2012), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Tien 2007).

Pacific Islands: Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957).

(as Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Lee 1980).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Gallardo et al. 1993), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995), Belgium (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Black Sea (Gallardo et al. 1993), Britain (Burrows 1991, Tittley 2002, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Whitton et al. 2003), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Corsica (Gallardo et al. 1993), France (Feldmann 1937, Feldmann & Magne 1964, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Gallardo et al. 1993, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993, Shimada et al. 2003), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Edwards et al. 1975, Gallardo et al. 1993, Gallardo et al. 1993, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012), Spain (Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Ballesteros 1983, Gallardo et al. 1985, Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Aboal 1988b, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Gallardo et al. 1993, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Cantoral Uiza & Aboal Sanjurjo 2001, Moreno et al. 2001, Peña & Bárbara 2002), Sweden (Kylin 1907), Turkey (Europe) (Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Gallardo et al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Anon. 2011), Cape Verde Islands (Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972).

North America: British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979), Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Florida (Taylor 1928, Taylor 1960), Mexico (Taylor 1945), Mississippi (Taylor 1960), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (Taylor 1960), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Texas (Taylor 1960), Washington (Scagel et al. 1989).

Central America: Belize (Norris & Bucher 1982), Costa Rica (Taylor 1945, Taylor 1960), Islas Revillagigedo (Taylor 1945), Panama (Wysor & Kooistra 2003, Wysor 2004).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999), Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960), Tobago (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011), Brazil (Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Ecuador (Taylor 1945), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Taylor 1960, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo et al. 1993), Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Côte d'Ivoire (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968), Equatorial Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Børgesen 1946, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Gallardo et al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002), Nigeria (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gallardo et al. 1993).

Indian Ocean Islands: Diego Garcia Atoll (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Rodrigues Island (De Clerck et al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Ghosh & Prakash Kershi 2010, Gupta 2012), Iran (Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013), Israel (Papenfuss 1968, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Gallardo et al. 1993), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Saudi Arabia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008), Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Shimada et al. 2003), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Tien 2007).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2000), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Adams 1994), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Day et al. 1995, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Huisman & Borowitzka 2003).

Pacific Islands: Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott & Huisman, 2004, Sherwood 2004, McDermid et al. 2005), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999), Solomon Islands (Womersley & Bailey 1970).

(as Enteromorpha lingulata J.Agardh)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974), Italy (Funk 1961, Giaccone 1969), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Spain (Seoane-Camba 1965), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980), Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1925, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Anon. 2011), Cape Verde Islands (Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Salvage Islands (Parente et al. 2000).

North America: Florida (Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974), Louisiana (Taylor 1960), Mexico (Taylor 1960), Mississippi (Taylor 1960), North Carolina (Taylor 1960), Texas (Taylor 1960), Virginia (Humm 1979).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960), Costa Rica (Taylor 1945, Taylor 1960), Guatemala (Taylor 1960), Panama (Wysor 2004).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011), Aves (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1960), Brazil (Taylor 1930, Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Cameroon (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949), Nigeria (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Indian Ocean Islands: Diego Garcia Atoll (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Ghosh & Prakash Kershi 2010, Gupta 2012).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Taylor 1950), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

(as Enteromorpha prolifera var. tubulosa (Kützing) Batters)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

North America: Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979).

(as Enteromorpha tubulosa var. ramosa Schiffner)
Europe: Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999).

Key references
Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Hayden, H.S., Blomster, J., Maggs, C.A., Silva, P.C., Stanhope, M.J. & Waaland, J.R. (2003). Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera. European Journal of Phycology 38(3): 277-294.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Hiraoka, M., Ichihara, K., Zhu, W., Shimada, S., Oka, N., Cui, J., Tsubaki, S. & He, P. (2017). Examination of species delimitation of ambiguous DNA-based Ulva (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) clades by culturing and hybridisation. Phycologia 56(5): 517-532.

Huisman, J.M. (2015). Algae of Australia: marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 1. Green and brown algae. pp. [i]-viii, 1-320, 56 figs, 14 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. (2013). A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Kraft, G.T. (2007). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 1. Green algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-347, 110 text-figs; 11 pls. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study & CSIRO Publishing.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Ni-Ni-Win, Hanyuda, T., Arai, S., Uchimura, M., Prathep, A., Draisma, S.G.A., Phang, S.M., Abbott, I.A., Millar, A.J.K. & Kawai, H. (2011). A taxonomic study of the genus Padina (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) including the description of four new species from Japan, Hawaii, and the Andaman Sea. Journal of Phycology 47(5): 1193-1209.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Rybak, A.S. (2015). Revision of herbarium specimens of freshwater Enteromorpha-like Ulva (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) collected from Central Europe during the years 1849–1959. Phytotaxa 218(1): 1-29.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Wolf, M.A., Sciuto, K., Andreoli, C. & Moro, I. (2012). Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): cryptic species and new introductions. Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1510-1521.

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Created: 27 October 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 14 March 2018 by M.D. Guiry

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Castellanos González, M.E.; Moreira González, A.R. & León Pérez, A.R. (2012). Caracterización fitoquímica de las macroalgas marinas Gracilaria caudata J. Agardh, Ulva lactuca L. y Ulva flexuosa subsp. flexuosa Wulfen de la bahía de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Algas, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 46: 4-8.
Michael, T.S. (2009). Glycoconjugate organization of Enteromorpha (=Ulva) flexuosa and Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) zoospores. Journal of Phycology 45(3): 660-677, 8 figs, 1 table.
Rybak, A., Czerwoniec, A., Gabka, M. & Messyasz, B. (2014). Ulva flexuosa (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) inhabiting inland aquatic ecosystems: molecular, morphological and ecological discrimination of subspecies. European Journal of Phycology 49(4): 471-485.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 September 2018.

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