154,521 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,093 images, 59,762 bibliographic items, 417,031 distributional records.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Codiaceae
Genus Codium

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
xposed rocky shore at Bradys Beach, Bamfield, B.C.. 24 Oct 2014. Bridgette Clarkston. © 2014 Bridgette Clarkston.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. 27 Dec 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia; with Hormosira banksii on open rock. 18 Nov 2013. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia; in rock-pool. 18 Nov 2013. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, South of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal with C. tomentosum, North of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
upper subtidal, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, North of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

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Costaria costata (C.Agardh) De A.Saunders

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; plants in tidal pools showing apical hairs
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: 32-33

Published in: Hariot, P. (1889). Algues. In: Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn. 1882-1883. Tome V. Botanique. Cryptogamie. (Hariot, P., Petit, P., Muller De Argovie, J., Bescherelle, E., Massolongo, C. & Franchet, A. Eds), pp. 3-109. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Fils, Imprimieurs Libraires.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Codium is Codium tomentosum Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Acanthocodium fragile Suringar

Type information
Type locality: Japan (Suringar 1867: 258). Type: L 910, 187...1712 (Womersley 1984: 238).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), fragile (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Acanthocodium fragile Suringar 1867

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Codium mucronatum J.Agardh 1887
Codium fragile var. typicum Schmidt 1923

Taxonomic notes
Codium fragile in Oregon and California requires reassessment (Trowbridge in Gabrielson, Widdowson & Lindstrom 2004: 12). Two forms are apparent but futher studies are required.

Kusakina et al. (2006:1) note that the C. fragile material found in Caribou Harbour is an intermediate in terms of both mucron length and molecular data, suggesting a hybrid of ssp. tomentosoides and ssp. atlanticum. - (28 Aug 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Two supposedly introduced subspecies have been recognised in Britain and Ireland since Silva's (1955) study, viz, Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum (A.D. Cotton) P.C. Silva and C. fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goor) P.C. Silva. However, Maggs (in Brodie, Maggs & John 2007: 194) and Provan et al. (2008) have shown that the first is probably native, and the second, whilst introduced and invasive, is synonymous with C. fragile subsp. fragile. The degree of both genotypic variation reported (small) and phenotypic variation described (large) makes the described subspecies and varieties unsustainable and it would be better to recognise one variable species for all practical purposes. - (29 Dec 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
The nominate subspecies was introduced accidentally, probably on multiple occasions via shipping and via oysters imported from the N Pacific for farming, into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 269), being first found in France in 1946. It is now widespread in the Mediterranean. - (6 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot)
Chinese: Sui song (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

English: Fleece, Sponge Tang (Madlener 1977), Sponge Seaweed, Sponge Weed, Green Sea-Velvet (Anon. 2000), Green Sponge Fingers, Fragile Green Sponge Fingers (Bunker et al. 2010).

Gaeilge: Spúinse (Anon. 2000).

Japanese: Miru (Madlener 1977).

Korean: Chonggak (Madlener 1977).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
dichotomous sponge tang; shui-sung {China}

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Amitage, C.S. & Sjøtun, K. (2016). Codium fragile in Norway: subspecies identity and morphology. Botanica Marina 59(6): 439-450, 5 fig..

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. (2010). Bryopsidales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 157-209. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.

Lam, D.W. & Zechman, F.W. (2006). Phylogenetic analyses of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 42: 669-678.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Common marine algae from Alaska to Baja California. pp. [i]iv, [1]-97. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers.

Mya Kyawt Wai, Thida Nyunt, Soe Pa Pa Kyaw and Soe-Htun, U. (2009). The morphology and distribution of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from Myanmar. Journal of Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science 7(5): 183-187.

Nizamuddin, M. (1991). The green marine algae of Libya. pp. 1-230. Bern: El-Faateh University, Department of Botany.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Scagel, R.F. (1957). An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). Bulletin, National Museum of Canada 150: [i]-vi, 1-289.

Schories, D., Selig, U. & Schubert, H. (2009). Species and synonym list of the German marine macroalgae based on historical and recent records. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge 21: 7-135.

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Silva, P.C. (1955). The dichotomous species of Codium in Britain. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 34: 565-577, 5 figs, 1 plate.

Smith, G.M. (1944). Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula. pp. i-ix, 1-622, 98 pls. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Stiger-Pouvreau, V. & Thouzeau, G. (2015). Marine species introduced on the French Channel-Atlantic coasts: A review of main biological invasions and impacts. Open Journal of Ecology 5: 227-257.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.

Verbruggen, H., Leliaert, F., Maggs, C.A., Shimada, S., Schils, T., Provan, J., Booth, D., Murphy, S., De Clerck, O., Littler, D.S., Littler, M.M. & Coppejans, E. (2007). Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the green algal genus Codium (Bryopsidales) based on plastid DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 240-254.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Vinogradova, K.L. (1979). Opredelitel' vodoroslej dal'nevostochnykh morej SSSR. Selenye vodorosli [Determination book of the algae of the far-eastern seas of the USSR. Green algae]. pp. 1-148, 67 figs, pls I-XVIII. Leningrad: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Botanicheskij Institut im. V.L. Komarova.

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Created: 04 March 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 February 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 23296 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amitage, C.S. & Sjøtun, K. (2016). Codium fragile in Norway: subspecies identity and morphology. Botanica Marina 59(6): 439-450, 5 fig..
Armitage, C.S., Sjotun, K. & Jensen, K,H. (2014). Correlative evidence for competition between Fucus serratus and the introduced chlorophyte Codium fragile subsp. fragilie on the southwest coast of Norway. Botanica Marina 57(2): 85-97.
Armitage, P.R., Nelson, W.A. & Sutherland, J.E. (2017). Mismatch of morphological and molecular identifications in native and invasive subspecies of Codium fragile (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 218-229.
Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E. (2003). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina 46: 404-412.
Blunden, G., Fletcher, R.L., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). An unusual growth form of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subspecies tomentosoides (Goor) Silva found on floating structures in the Solent. British Phycological Journal 24: 299.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Mitosis and mitotic activity in Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 8: 149-155.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Reproduction and early development on Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot: Chlorophyceae. Phycologia 8: 91-99.
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.
Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.
Carlton, J.T. & Scanlon, J.A. (1985). Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina 28: 155-165.
Chapman, A.S. (1999). From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 277-289.
Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.
Churchill, A.C. & Moeller, H.W. (1972). Seasonal patterns of reproduction in New York. Population of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva.. Journal of Phycology 8: 147-152.
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Cuesta Moliner, C. (2006). Macroalgas invasoras del Principado de Asturias: situación actual de Codium fragile. In: (GEIB: Grupo Especialista en Investigaciones Biológicas, eds.) Resúmenes del II Congreso Nacional sobre Especies Exóticas Invasoras, León, p. 71. ( Eds)
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Rico Ordás, J.M. (2007). Distribución, crecimiento y fenología del alga invasora Codium fragile y su congénere nativa Codium tomentosum. In: (Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, eds.) I Congreso de Estudios Asturianos (2006) Tomo VI. Comisión de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y Tecnología, Oviedo, pp. 145-161. ( Eds)
Delgado, A. & Duville, C.A. (1977). Estudio de la composición química de Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyta) en Pto. Deseado (Prov. de Santa Cruz, Argentina). Contribución Técnica CIBIMA 31: 9.
Dromgoole, F.I. (1975). Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 257-264.
Drouin, A., McKindsey, C. & Johnson, L. (2011). Detecting the impacts of notorious invaders: experiments versus observations in the invasion of eelgrass meadows by the green seaweed Codium fragile. Oecología : .
Feldmann, J. (1956). Sur la parthénogénèse du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot dans la Méditerranée. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 243: 305-307.
Fletcher, R.L., Blunden, G., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). J Appl Phycol 1: 227-237.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia 11: 67-70.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1973). Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Marine Biology, Berlin 19: 127-132.
Furnari, G. (1974). Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in the Lake Faro (Messina). Mem Biol Marina e Oceanogr 4: 193-199.
Furnari, G. (1974). Segnalazione di Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot nel lago di Faro (Messina). Mem. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 4: 193-199.
Garbary, D.J., Vandermeulen, H. & Kim, K.Y. (1997). Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) Invades the Gulf of St Lawrence , Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 40: 537-540.
Griffin, R.L., Rogers, D.J., Spencer-Phillips, P.T. & Swain, L. (1995). Lectin from Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides conjugated to colloidal gold: a new histochemical reagent.. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 52: 225-227.
Hanisak, M.D. & Harlin, M.M. (1978). Uptake of inorganic nitrogen by Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 450-454, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Hanisak, M.D. (1979). Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on growth of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 15: 124-127.
Hedberg, M.F., Huang, Y.-S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1981). Size of the chloroplast genome in Codium fragile. Science 213: 445-447.
Hewad, W.D. & Carpenter, E.J. (1975). Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 815-823.
Hubbard, C.B. & Garbary, D.J. (2002). Morphological variation of Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) in Eastern Canada. Botanica Marina 45: 476-485.
Hwang, E.K., Baek, J.M. & Park, C.S. (2009). Cultivation of the green alga, Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, by artificial seed production in Korea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 19-25, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Jónsson, S. & Gunnarsson, K. (1975). La presence du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot en Islande et son extension dans l'Atlantique Nord. Nova Hedwigia 26: 725-732.
Jurd, K.M., Rogers, D.J., Blunden, G. & McLellan, D.S. (1995). Anticoagulant properties of sulphated polysaccharides and a proteoglycan from Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum. J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 339-345.
Kadokami, K., Yoshida, N., Mizusaki, K., Noda, K. & Makisumi, S. (1990). Some properties of trypsin-like proteases extracted from the seaweed Codium fragile and their purification. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(3): 513-517.
Kim, K.Y. & Garbary, D.J. (2007). Photosynthesis in Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) from a Nova Scotia estuary: responses to desiccation and hyposalinity . Marine Biology, Berlin 151: 99-107.
Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.
Lassen, C., Bebout, L.E., Paerl, H.W. & Jørgensen, B.B. (1994). Microsensor studies of oxygen and light distribution in the green macroalga Codium fragile. Journal of Phycology 30: 381-386, 7 figs.
Loveless, R.W. & Rogers, D.J. (1985). Biochemical studies on the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 188.
Malinowski, K.C. & Ramus, J. (1973). Growth of the green alga Codium fragile in a Connecticut estuary. Journal of Phycology 9: 102-110.
Manhart, J.R. & VonderHaar, R.A. (1991). Intron revealed by nucleotide sequence of large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Codium fragile (Chlorophyta): phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Phycology 27: 613-617, 3 figs.
Matheson, K., McKenzie, C.H., Sargent, P.S., Hurley, M. & Wells, T. (2014). Northward expansion of the invasive green algae Codium fragile spp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 into coastal waterd of Newfoundland, Canada. Bioinvasions Rec. 3: 151-158.
Mathieson, A.C., Dawes, C.J., Harris, L.G. & Hehre, E.J. (2003). Expansion of the Asiatic green alga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine. Rhodora 105(921): 1-53.
Meslin, R. (1954). Sur la naturalisation du Codium fragile (Suring.) Hariot et son extension aux côtes de Normandie. Bull. Lab. Mar. Dinard 49-50: 110-117.
Miravalles, A.B., Leonardi, P.I. & Cáceres, E.J. (2011). Male gametogenesis ultrastructure of Codium fragile subsp. novae-zelandiae (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 50(4): 370-378.
Ortiz, J., Uquiche, E., Robert, P., Romero, N., Quitral, N., & Llantén, C. (2009). Functional and nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Codium fragile, Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 111: 320-?.
Park, C.S. & Sohn, C.H. (1992). Effects of light and temperature on morphogenesis of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in laboratory culture. Korean Journal of Phycology 7(2): 213-223, 10 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]
Prince, J.S. (1988). Sexual reproduction in Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) from the northeast coast of North America. Journal of Phycology 24: 112-114.
Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.
Ramus, J. (1972). Differentiation of the green alga Codium fragile. American Journal of Botany 59: 478-482.
Raven, J.A. & Osmond, C.B. (1990). Bicarbonate use in photosynthesis by brown macroalgae and Codium fragile from North Carolina. British Phycological Journal 25: 94.
Ricketts, T.R. (1971). The structures of siphonein and siphonoxanthin from Codium fragile. Phytochemistry 10: 155-160.
Rogers, D.J. & Loveless, R.W. (1985). Receptor-specificity differences in the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 190-191.
Rogers, D.J., Jurd, K., Blunden, G., Zanetti, F. & Paoletti, S. (1990). Anticoagulant activity in extracts of the green alga Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum. British Phycological Journal 25: 96.
Scheibling, R.E. & Melady, R.A. (2008). Effect of water movement and substratum type on vegetative recruitment of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Botanica Marina 51: 341-349.
Schmidt, A.L. & Scheibling, R.E. (2006). A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada.. Botanica Marina 49: 315-330.
Searles, R.B., Hommersand, M.H. & Amsler, C.D. (1984). The occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides and C. taylorii (Chlorophyta) in North Carolina. Botanica Marina 27: 185-187.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1995). Establishment of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on New Zealand rocky shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers. Journal of Ecology 83: 949-965.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1998). Ecology of the green macroalga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: invasive and non-invasive subspecies. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 36: 1-64.
Trowbridge, C.D. (2001). Coexistence of introduced and native congeneric algae: Codium fragile and C. tomentosum on Irish rocky intertidal shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 931-937.
Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.
Wassman, E.R. & Ramus, J. (1973). Primary-production measurements for the green seaweed Codium fragile in Long Island Sound. Marine Biology, Berlin 21: 289-297.
Williams, M.L. & Cobb, A.H. (1985). Effects of irradiance and light quality on starch synthesis by isolated chloroplasts of Codium fragile. New Phytologist 101: 79-88.
Yotsui, T. & Migita, S. (1989). Cultivation of a green alga Codium fragile by regeneration of medullary threads. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55: 41-44.
Yu, S. & Pedersén, M. (1989). Light/DTT-activated fructose bisphosphatase in isolated chloroplasts from the marine green macroalga Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot. Botanica Marina 32: 79-84.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 February 2019.

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